Culture is the way of life as well as a heritage that is being passed from one generation to the other. Among the countries of Africa, according to Kashim, (2011), “Nigeria has taken a prominent position when it comes to cultural heritage and creative art which are manifested in her diverse crafts”.The products of these indigenous craft have sufficiently served economic needs of the people in the local communities. Since the pre-colonial era, various members of distinct ethnic groups engage in a lot of traditional craft practices in the agrarian occupational engagement. Nigerian culture is very colourful especially when it comes to the textiles, it's a thing of pride for Nigerians. This study therefore, was motivated through the observations of the various traditional designs found on the artifacts of the Fulani people of Kaduna state. These designs could be very suitable as motifs in batik method of fabric, box bag and traveling bag embellishment in textile design.
1.1 Background of Study
This study is concerned with artifacts, traditional designs and motifs of the Fulani people of Kaduna State. Ogunduyile, (2011) 0bserved that art has been noted to be the totality of all knowledge and values shared by a society. Creativity has been in existence right from the time of the ancient man; he used what he could find in his surrounding to solve his problems. Marvin and David, L. D wrote that human beings expressed themselves and told their stories in pictures long before they could read and write. They further explained that pictures on the walls of early cave dwellings are evidence of the human compulsion to describe the world in both representational and symbolic images.The Fulani man is, therefore, not exempted in this storyof the ancient man; he created and designed things with whatever he could find in his immediate environment. Development and industrialization of a country revolves around the modernization of the artifacts and crafts of the people. “The industrial development in a country involves considerable artifacts and crafts that develops in stages and which leads to a progressive growth” (Ajayi 2007). The use of these traditional designs is going a long way in saving the artifacts and crafts for the younger generation.
1.1.1 Brief Introduction to KadunaState
Kaduna state is a state in the central Fulani Nigeria, and its capital is Kaduna. Established in 1912 by Lord Frederick Lugard, first as a garrison town and then as the regional capital of then Fulani protectorate, Kaduna soon attracted people of all races, religion and cultures. Within two decades of its establishment, it grew from almost a virgin territory of small scattered settlement of the indigenous population of mostly the Gbagyi, to a town of over 30,000 people. This population comprise of the British colonies, artisans and clerks from the southern protectorate as well as laborers and traders from the Nupe, Hausa, Kanuris, Fulanis and other tribes in the Fulani protectorate. Kaduna derived its name from the river Kaduna which gave the settlement its name; it was so called because it was crocodile infested, ”žKadduna' being the plural of “crocodile” in Hausa, (Haruna2013).
The state has at the moment 23 local government areas and all these 23 are all blessed with fertile land for farming of both food and cash crops, it's also for irrigational farming (fadama farming). The state is also blessed with several mineral resources like clay, gold, graphite and many others, which has made the state a center for several small scale businesses like pottery, textiles, poultry and many other petty trading. It is mostly dominated by the Fulani, Gbagyi, Adara, Gong, Atyap, Hausa and some other ethnic communities, according to Dangel (2008). The Fulani people occupy four local Government Areas in Kaduna state and they are Jaba, Jema'a, Kagarko and Kachia Local GovernmentAreas.
1.1.2 Brief Introduction to the Fulani People
According to James (1997) the Fulani people spread over an area of about 307 square miles (sqm) in Kaduna state of Nigeria.Theorigin of Fulani include Nok, Kwoi, Zshiek( Kurmin Musa) Dung( Jaban Kogo) Chori, Fai , Ketere, Sambang Gida, Sambang Daji,Wenyom and other Fulani settlements in the southern part of Kaduna State. Like many peoples of Fulani Nigeria, the Fulani, who are neither Hausa nor Fulani, have also adopted the Hausa language as part of their lingua franca.The Hausa Language is the Language commonly spoken in the Fulani region of Nigeria.
The Hausa Language to a greater extent has diluted and adulterated the native tongue (Hyam) of the Fulani language often mutually in-twined or used interchangeably among younger generation that did not grow up with the native lingua franca hence the fading away of the Fulani Language.
1.2 Statement of Problem
Civilization has affected the production of the Fulani artifacts negatively in the sense that the production of these artifacts that are beautifully decorated with traditional designs has drastically reduced, thereby leading to the loss of some historical information. The problem of the study therefore is the lack of proper preservation and presentation of the Fulani artifacts and traditional designs that could serve as means of saving information for the younger generation
In Nigeria, what is mostly known about traditional designs and artifacts in art revolves around the Igbo, Yoruba and Hausa and little is known about the minority ethnic groups who populate this country in their millions. The presence of historical crafts activities around Fulani people shows that these skills can be utilized to modern day technology for if not adopted now, with time the artifacts and crafts will face extinction. Most of these artifacts and crafts were used for different purposes and it was observed that the seartifacts and crafts have been replaced with modern facilities which appear to be more durable. Against the background, the researcher is therefore set to investigate the existence of these antiquities and to provide solution on how they can be used on modern fabric, box bag and traveling bag. The problem of the study therefore is the lack of proper documentation and preservation of the Fulani artifacts, craft and traditional designs.
1.3 Aims and Objectives of the Study
The aim of this study is to explore and preserve the Fulani traditional designs and motifs that can be seen on the artifacts as well as adapt them on fabric, box bag and traveling bags. While the objectives of the study are:
- Study the Fulani artifacts and the various unique features of the traditional designs found on them.
- Determine the various unique features of the Fulani traditional designs as motifs in textile design.
- Select some of the artifacts and develop traditional motifs for them as to find out whether they can be used for fabric, box bag and traveling bags and box bag and traveling bag.
- To identify the meaning and functions attached to the various artifacts, crafts and traditional designs of the Fulani people.
- Assess the relationship of the newly modified motifs and the old traditional ones that have been in existence in order to ascertain their differences
1.4 Research Questions
In this study research questions are opted for because they provide findings and solutions to research problems. Some of the research questions raised for this study are:
- What are the unique features of the Fulani traditional designs found on the artifacts of the Fulani people?
- What are the various unique features of the Fulani traditional designs that can be used as motifs in textile design?
- Can the traditional designs found on the artifacts of the Fulani people be adapted and applied on fabric, box bag and traveling bags and apparels using batik methods?
- Are there special meanings and functions attached to these artifacts and traditional designs?
- To what extent can the differences between the newly modified motifs and the old traditional ones of the Fulani people be determined?
The Fulani people are a people with an interesting culture that can be studied over and over again because of the beautiful way of life of the Fulani man. The researcher had studied most of the batik designed fabric, box bag and traveling bags and apparels in the markets and discovered that they are mostly embellished with the designs and motifs of the Yoruba people of the southern part of Nigeria. The various traditional designs of the Fulani people, when inculcated and adapted on the fabric, box bag and traveling bag, will give batik another look from the ones already in circulation. Ala'u (2006) in his study on the “Adaptation of the Traditional Designs on crafts of Southern Kaduna as motifs for Textiles Resist Technique”, talked on the crafts of some ethnic groups in the southern part of Kaduna state and which Fulani was inclusive. But in his study of the Fulani crafts, he only studied and talked on the Nok terracotta which is one of the major artifacts the Fulani people can be identified with. James (1997), in his book entitled ”žThe Fulani:Its people, their political and cultural History', concentrated mainly on the cultural history and origin of the Fulani people, no serious attention was given to their artifacts, crafts, designs and motifs. Looking at the study of Ala'u (2006), Fagg (1999), James (1997) and some other paper presentations by Gandu (2013), it is obvious that much attention has not been given to the study of the artifacts and traditional designs of the Fulani people which, therefore, justifies this study.
1.6 Significance of the Study
Studies carried out shows that scholars like Fagg (1990) have written on Nok culture, which is one major part of the Fulani people, however most of the documentations made by these scholars were on sculptures and none has been made on the textiles of the people. In response to Fagg (1990) and Ala'u (2006), this study will concentrate on digging into the artifacts and traditional designs of the Fulani people. Most of these artifacts and traditional designs are in the danger of extinction as the younger generation is not keen on taking over from the older generation.
The significance and importance of this study therefore will be talked about in the following sub topics, and aspects of life;Educational, cultural, aesthetic, economical and technological Educationally, the study will provide a good source of information, especially when there is limited number of literature on the comprehensive study of the artifacts, crafts and traditional designs of the Fulani people.
Economically, this study will encourage people to go into private practice of textiles through the use of local resources, skills, artifacts and traditional designs for the economical growth of the Fulani people, Kaduna state and the country as a whole. Industrial development in a country involves considerable artisanal crafts firms in the early stages that grew progressively in number into large scale manufacturers over the years. Ajayi,(2007).
Culturally, this study contributes to the preservation of the cultural heritage of the Fulani people, in the sense that most of the information on cultural artifacts and traditional designs would be documented and motifs adapted on fabric, box bag and traveling bags. It will further develop the awareness and understanding of the cultural activity of the Fulani people.
Aesthetically, this study will provide the Fulani people beautifully designed fabric, box bag and traveling bags and apparels that can be used as the identity of the Fulani people in social gatherings.Textile dyeing with embellishment of colourful pattern sand motifs will satisfy the local clothing needs.
There is the need to identify and preserve these traditional designs, and their adaptation on fabric, box bag and traveling bag is one way of reserving and representing them.The arts councils, museums and departments of culture are all in the business of studying, preserving and promoting culture, and the new policy on education emphatically stresses the significance of integrating our cultural system, (Rhoda 2006). In line with Rhoda (2006) it can be said that the culture can be disseminated to a larger public.This study, therefore, will compliment the efforts of the culture departments and the art councils.
The study will also enlighten the public on the artifacts and traditional designs of the Fulani people, thereby rekindling the interest in the study of Fulani arts and culture. It is also anticipated that this work will provide fresh resources in motifs with a view to improving or adding to the existing literature on fabric, box bag and traveling bag embellishment in textiles. Similarly, Wangboje (1985), encouraged the conduct of local research into local and traditional materials in order to meet the challenges of the time and to produce products that are relevant to the needs, taste and culture of the society. This study also responds to the call made by Jamkur (1992) and Ala'u (2006) for more research on the Nok culture and the craft of the southern Kaduna people for adaptation to other textile methods of production using pigments and dyes. Furthermore, it responds to Governments' incessant call for Nigerians to look inwards rather than outwards for their needs.
The fact that Nigerians are living in an era of democracy with some economic hardship that is making the people patronize home made goods makes this study relevant.
The home made goods which Nigerians now rush for include textile products such as adire- eleko, okene, akwete and aso-oke (Alau 2006). This recent development, therefore, makes this study not only justifiable and imperative but also timely. Finally, in the present democratic dispensation and the seemingly rising feelings of nationalism,cultural inclination with the ardent desire for industrialization and economic emancipation, the significance of the study in this direction cannot be underrated.
1.7 Scope and Delimitation
The scope of the study is delimited to two Local Government Areas the Fulani people are predominantly found, namely, Kachia and Jaba Local Government Areas. Kachia Local Government Area has 23 districts and out of which the Fulani people occupy 9. In Jaba Local Government Area there are 16 districts all of which are occupied by the Fulani people.These two Local Government Areas are sample areas because most of the artifacts of the Fulani people are the same.
Furthermore, the study is delimited to the artifacts and traditional designs that are found on household utensils, musical instruments and ritual equipment of the Fulani people. The study was also limited to batik method of fabric, box bag and traveling bag embellishment only. Below are some Fulani cultural artifacts and crafts that were studied.
- Nik fang (The co-joinedpot)
- Yok zar (The co-joinedspoon)
- Hyep shi (Oil jar)
- Hki Nok (Nokterracotta)
1.8 Basic Assumptions
The following assumptions were made for the study:
- The Fulani people have an established artifacts and traditional designs that are on the way to total extinction
- The Fulani people are a people with an interesting culture that needs to be exploited and critically studied
- Representation of other Nigerian cultures should also be reflected in fabric, box bag and traveling bags and apparels embellished with batik method of resist technique instead of focusing on some and ignoring the others.
- The researcher will gain access to most of the artifacts and traditional designs of the Fulani people.
- Most of the respondents have adequate knowledge of these artifacts and traditional designs