The term Information and Communication Technology (ICT) refers to technologies that provide access to information through telecommunications. Although similar to Information Technology but focuses primarily on communication Technologies which includes internet, wireless mediums; for example people can communicate in real time with others in different countries using technologies such as instant messaging, voice over IP (VOIP), video-conferencing, social networking websites like facebook allows users from all over the world remain in contact and communicate on a regular basis. ICT is the use of computers and telecommunications to create manipulate and distribute enlightenment and entertainment. Information and Communication Technology has penetrated to the core of our professional lives.
As a prelude to other parts of this study, this chapter will discuss the background upon which this study was initiated, the statement of problems that led to this study, the Aim and Objectives of the study. Others are Significance of the study, Scope of work, Research hypothesis and questions, Limitation of the study and Definition of technical terms.
1.2 Background of Study
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has been found to be of tremendous important in improving the services provided by special libraries as a result of the inability of the existing traditional manual methods to cope effectively and efficiently with the increasing volume in the library, Ducombe and Heeks (2014) cited by Anyakoha (2011) defined ICT as the electronic means of capturing, processing, storing and disseminating information.
It is a fact to state that, an effective human resources development is a function of the application of methods of teaching, alternative channels of communication, educational resources and expertise of utilizing these resources by the instructors or the lecturer. It is on the above premise that this project is situated. To generate a desirable change in the learner, good teaching must take place and to bring about good teaching, teacher should be able to convey their message in the simplest, most convincing and practical way to the learner through the use of resources available to the education industry. These resources are properly utilized, underutilized or over utilized. These trends portend confusion for the educational system. If actually the education industry is the pivot for achieving genuine national development and the instrument par excellence for achieving same, then the available educational resources should be properly utilized to bring about better educational goals. This may point to the fact that resources in the education industry are not properly used (Ebong 2006: Maduagwu 2004; and Maduagwu and Nworgu, 2006).
According to Ige (2010) ICT implies processing, storage and retrieval of information in coded form and its transportation and/or exchange between sources/terminals electronically. Similarly, Ekpo (2010) noted that ICT have been used to simplify availability and access to information and they encompasses the following complementary technologies: telephone, software technologies for distribution of information process, web-browser and servers, multimedia systems, and peripherals. These technological tools and resource are used to communicate, create, process, disseminate, share, store and manage information. ICT has established itself as an essential tool in information services delivery (Ayodele, 2010).
The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and the International Labour Organization (ILO) recommendations of 2002 on technical and vocational education and training for twenty-first Century, define the “technical and vocational education” as a comprehensive term referring to those aspects of the educational process involving, in addition to general education, the study of technologies and related sciences, and the acquisition of practical skills, attitudes, understanding and knowledge relating to occupations in various sectors of economic and social life. Technical and Vocational Education (TVE) is concerned with the preparation of learners for employment, through the provision of knowledge, skills and attitudes desirable in the world of work. Technical and vocational education is further understood to be:
- An integral part of general education;
- A means of preparing for occupational fields and for effective participation in the world of work;
- An aspect of lifelong learning and a preparation for responsible citizenship;
- An instrument for promoting environmentally sound sustainable development;
- A method of facilitating poverty alleviation (UNESCO and ILO, 2002).
Technical and vocational education can be formal, informal, continuing or life-long learning, in-service training with various ranges of providers: public, semi-public and private institutions. Technical and vocational education has an orientation towards the world of work and the emphasis of the curriculum on the acquisition of employable skills. Its delivery systems are therefore well placed to train the skilled and entrepreneurial workforce that nation needs to create wealth and emerge out of poverty. Due to the dynamic levels of its training delivery, it can respond to the different training needs of learners from different socio-economic and academic backgrounds, and prepare them for gainful employment and sustainable livelihoods. The needs for Technical and vocational education around the world are enormous because of the changes occurring in the world of work, which have implications on the structure of appropriate courses in Technical and vocational education. It is therefore essential for every government be it local, state, or federal to be deeply aware of the importance of human resources development (HRD) and makes great efforts to develop technical and vocational education. For education to reap the full benefits of ICTs in learning, and effectively accomplish the aforementioned goals of technical and vocational education, nation’s educational system needs to develop strategies and plans to enhance the teaching-learning process through the use of new tools for learning.
Therefore, in Nigeria Polytechnics where the research was carried out, the activities that was conducted is to know the use of information and communication technology in teaching of vocational subjects.
1.3 Statement of Problems
Investigation revealed that there are number of questions about the ICT acceptance and usage among teachers and students from special education which emerge problem in special education program and effect the enrollment of the students. The utilize of the ICT in school will develop highly confident upon effort Special Education School to society expectation in educating special students. Therefore, a study in Technical and Vocational Special Education School should be conducted for the purpose of surveying ICT and usage in the teaching and learning process among teachers and students.
The focus of the study is to identify the level of ICT acceptance and usage in teaching process among the special education program teachers and the level of ICT acceptance and usage in learning process among the special education program students.
1.4 Aim and Objectives of Study
The aim of the study is to examine the use of information and communication technology in teaching of vocational subjects in Nigeria Polytechnics. In achieving this aim, the following specific objectives were laid out as follows:
- To examine the impact of Information Communication Technology in teaching of vocational subjects.
- To examine how information communication equipment contributes to the teaching of vocational subject.
- To examine the challenges of using Information Communication Technology in teaching of vocational subject.
1.5 Research Questions
The study came up with research questions so as to be able to ascertain the above stated objectives. The specific research questions for the study are stated below as follows:
- How does the impact Information Communication Technology enhance of vocational subject?
- How does Information Communication Technology equipment influence teaching of vocational subjects?
- What are the challenges of using Information Communication Technology in teaching of vocational subjects?
1.6 Research Hypothesis
In order to pursue the objective of this study, the following generalized statements have been designed to guide and aids in obtaining the result for the experiment to be conducted. For this work, the null hypothesis will be represented with H0 while the alternative hypothesis will be represented with hypothesis H1.
- H0: There is no significant difference between Information Communication Technology and teaching of vocational subject.
- H1: There is a significant difference between Information Communication Technology and teaching of vocational subject.
- H0: There is no significant difference between the use of projector and teaching of vocational subject
- H1: There is a significant difference between the use of projector and teaching of vocational subject
1.7 Significance of Study
This study will offer useful ideas to existing knowledge on the subject matters. It would be of help to the students as well as Teachers in their daily pursuance of the duties particularly those presenting seminar workshop and symposium papers.
It will reveal the influence it has in the developing of information and communication technology centers the ways and how they are been managed. This study will be useful to both private and public sectors on how to improve on the information and communication technology in the day to day usage in the enhancement of the teaching of Vocational Subjects in Federal Polytechnic Nekede.
This study will be of immense benefit to other researchers who intend to know more on this study and can also be used by non-researchers to build more on their research work. This study contributes to knowledge and could serve as a guide for other study.
1.8 Scope of Study
The scope of the research is focused on the use of information and communication technology in teaching of vocational subjects in Nigeria Polytechnics using Federal Polytechnic Nekede, Owerri as a case study.
1.9 Limitations of the Study
During the course of this study, many things militated against its completion, some of which are:
- Time Constraint: The time frame given to accomplish this project was very short due to school academic calendar and it was carried out under pressure which made the researcher not to implement some necessary features.
- Research material: availability of research material is a major setback to the scope of the study.
- Frequent power failure: This made the researcher append more money on fuel to ensure sustainable power.
- Financial Constraint: Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
1.10 Definition of Terms
E-learning: Is an educational resource that helps in effective teaching and learning process created through combining e-digital content with local community and tutor support along with global community engagement.
Communication: This is the process of transmitting information, ideas and attitudes from one person to another.
Information and Communication Technology (ICT): It means a general term that describes any technology that help produce, manipulate and communicate information.