1.1 Background Of Study
A computer is an electronic device that can process data. Computer system is capable of accepting input data (unprocessed data), through an input device, store and processed the data and place processed data (information) on the out put device generally called output.
Some people have always responded to as problem with some types of solutions. The birth of electronic multi media like computer is no exception when barter economy was replaced by monetary economy, the need for number, computation and the keeping of records, become apparent. As early as 300 B.C. number were in use in some parts of the world.
The concept of number and counting is said to have been initiated or developed by Hardsman who after their animals, returned in the evening they could be accounted for. Later other simple methods such as sticks and stones were also used to count. The first real computations aid, abacus, was developed in China as early as 2600 B.C.. Abacus is still commonly used in the world today.
In 1614 John Napier, a Scotish mathematician invented the Napier logarithm. In 1768, Galvanic became the first man to identify electro mechanical machine which is used to add stored data.
In this age of information and communication technology (ICT) where the world seems to be reduced to a global hamlet, no country desire to be mapped out for the relevant hamlet. Information and communication technology is therefore an indispensable tool for global hamlet. In the context of this research, ICT focused on the enhancement of students’ performance of school subjects through the use of computer aided instruction in computer science. In that case, knowledge and skills acquisition are necessary as a fundamental of ICT. Science education in general and computer science in particular today, demand for teachers capable of teaching the new technology and helping students interpret and repackage information and provide information. Rich environment, for communication to use ICT in the learning environment, there is need for students to have access to multimedia like computer, fax machine, telephone and electronic mail etc. Experts however believe that the educational sector is suffering neglect towards effective access of information (Ofulure 1999). The new communication technology has no distance and boundary and time so that the remotest village in Nigeria has the possibility of trapping a global store of knowledge. This development makes it possible to receive vast amount of information from anywhere in the world in seeds. Although cultural compatibility and the high rate of purchase and maintenances multimedia like computer in developing countries may make the demand for multimedia (computer) in science classroom seems luxury. At the moment, this state of affair may not last for a very long period of time.
The use of computer to facilitate learning of computer science within the formal learning and teaching situation will eventually enhance the acceptance of this versatile technology in the developing countries, which are normally dominated by the indigenous technology. All teachers are now expected to make use of ICT to support teaching and learning environment. A few feel uncomfortable if asked to teach in an ICT suite rather than their own laboratory that they will do anything they can do to avoid it or will leave the management of the lesson to the ICT technician or coordinator. Many feel that they could do a better job if the resource were more accessible for the lesson and the scheme of work. Being able to use ICT confidentially at home and as the teacher in charge of the lesson are two different things. Apart from the general classroom management issues, there can also be disconcerting technical differences.
The extra demands of simply working on a network can provide a large confident benefit. Many staff and the school network security arrangement can make that aspect of using the internet in lesson require a little more planning. For example, it is useful to be able to write hyper link into a word document to make students directly to relevant website but those may need to work in advance with the ICT technical manager to make sure that useful websites are “book marked” or entered in “favorites” for resource centred organizations who packaged folders for easier access or data. Here, book marked sites with their favorites are directly chained or linked to desire web pages of choice.
1.2 Statement Of The Problem
In recognition of the significant role of ICT in the technology of the nation, the federal government through the federal ministry of education introduced multi media students in unity schools. In 1990 (Borishade, 2000). The ministry did not stop there, it also organized annual holiday multi media programme for secondary school students in collaboration with some oil companies with a view to making every Nigerian citizen literate. It provide some multimedia for the unity school and produce a syllabus for the secondary school multi media (computer) studies. The national policy on education made provision for multi media (computer) education for junior and senior secondary schools as electives. After one decade of the introduction of the programme, very little result to have been achieved. No examination has been written on multi media (computer) education in JSCE. No wonder Jegede (2002) observed that our society is too slow in the uptake of ICT. Lack of qualified teachers in the area of ICT is a serious impediment to its implementation.
Only a few universities in the country such as (OAU, RSUER, ESUT) out of the whole lot offer courses in either computer science or computer engineering. It is only OSUT that gives information and communication technology as a course. Most of the computer science STM teachers in our schools are not computer literates and as such are not able not reflect any respect of ICT in their teaching as they can not give what they do not have. Most of our secondary schools do not have enough multi media (computer) for any meaningful learning to take place, even the available computers do not function. Some multi media are not properly maintained due to lack of fund, lack of qualified technicians and poor maintenance culture which is a serious problem in this country.
1.3 Purpose Of The Study
The purpose of this study includes:
- To know the use of multi media in the teaching of computer science.
- To know the meaning of information and communication technology.
1.4 Significance Of The Study
The result of this study will enable the application of multi media in the field of teaching and learning computer science carefully emphasizes and heighten practical results to support stepwise knowledge building, consolidation and claim of proactive education and development. It has platform for designing both curriculum-related activities and computer-based culture technologies, in terms of helping students on how teachers swing within scientific theory and empirical evidence. This strategy will greatly teaching and learning and hence increase understanding of the use of audio-visual aids which shows diagrammatic representation of processed. It will help students participate in the lesson. It will also help students to alleviate the problem of large class size which typifies computer science class.
1.5 Research Questions
- Will the multi media (computer) facilitate students to learning in developing countries?
- In view of the need to be mindful of cost, will cooperative learning techniques with multi media help in promoting students’ achievement?
- What is the level of achievement of Nigerian students when learning is undertaking with the use of the multi media?
- Do most SIM teaching lack ICT expertise and could not computers as teaching aids?
1.6 Scope Of The Study
The scope of this research work is limited to using multi-media as necessary tool to teaching and learning computer science in some select secondary school in Oredo local government area of Edo state. It covers the problems encountered and the solutions to such problems in the case study.
1.7 Definition Of Terms
Junior Secondary School Certificate Examination.
Information and Communication Technology.
Obafemi Awolowo University.
River State University of Technology.
Enugu State University of Technology.
Oyo State University of Technology.
Science, Technology and Mathematics.