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The Use of Local Pigments and Extenders for Formulation and Production of Emulsion Paint

The Use of Local Pigments and Extenders for Formulation and Production of Emulsion Paint

Project / Seminar Material
Reference ID: PS-318-TM


This research work titled "The Use of Local Pigments and Extenders for Formulation and Production of Emulsion Paint" is dedicated to God for his enabling grace and to all computer enthusiasts who help to make life a pleasant experience.



I owe my indebtedness to my Supervisor (Name of your Supervisor), the Head of Department (Name of your HOD), the Lecturers in the department of Chemical Engineering, Book Authors and Profound Scholars of existing/related research work for your moral support that facilitated the successful completion of my (Tertiary Institution level). I am grateful to God Almighty and my parent for their financial support in my career. I really appreciate you all for everything, Thank you very much.






  • 1.1 Background …



  • 2.1 Introduction



  • 3.1 Introduction



  • 4.1 Introduction



  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Summary
  • 5.3 Conclusion
  • 5.4 Recommendation




The study was carried out to produce emulsion paint from locally sourced pigment & extenders. The materials used for the production was of local source. The major raw materials used for the production of the emulsion paint: water, titanium iv oxide, calcium carbonate, kaoline, calgon, natrosol, biocide P.V.A, ammonia, deformer (Ginap) kerosene, yellow iron oxide and red iron oxide. Emulsion paint of two (2) samples was produced, and calcium carbonate locally obtained was used in larger quantity in order to reduce the cost of production of the paint with little of the expensive titanium iv oxide added. The first sample was creamy white colour paint, while the second sample has a result of the mixture of blending of locally sourced yellow iron oxide and red iron oxide. Pigment, that was added to it. The two (2) samples gave high quality emulsion paints in terms of its brush ability, opacity, coverage, stability etc. Quality control test carried out on the two (2) samples of emulsion paint showed that the local pigment and extenders used (titanium iv oxide, calcium trioxocarbonate iv, kaoline, yellow iron oxide and red iron oxide) fitted in so well in the paints to give the necessary adhesion, opacity and coverage, with excellent binding effect observed.


The Use of Local Pigments and Extenders for Formulation and Production of Emulsion Paint


1.1 Introduction

Paint is a fluid, or semi-fluid material which may be applied to surfaces in relatively thin layers, and which changes to a solid coating with time. The coating with time and change to a solid material may or may not be reversible, and may occur by evaporation of solvent by chemical reaction, or by a combination of the two. Paints usually consist of vehicle or binder, a pigment which contributes obscurities colour, hardness and bulk to the film, and a solvent or thinner which controls the consistency.

Paint is basically classified into two, which are gloss paint and emulsion paint.

1.1.1 Emulsion Paints (Water-Based Paints)

These are paints with water – soluble vehicle and they includes, calcimines, in which the vehicle is glue and case – in paints, in which the vehicles is casein or soyabean protein.

This project research study is directed towards producing and formulating of emulsion paint (water –thinned paint) from local pigments and extenders as raw materials. The high demand for emulsion paint for protective and decorative purposes has encouraged the development of different equipments for the manufacturing operation.

This piece of research work is due to reducing the high cost of emulsion paint formulation and production, because of the imported raw materials. (E.g Titanium dioxide), and thereby disclosing a local raw material from our natural domin which could also be used for the same purpose. An example of this locally obtained raw material for emulsion paint production is calcium carbonate in the form of calcite and dolomite.

1.1.2 Gloss Paints (Oil-Based Paints)

These are paints that may be classified according to whether the drying mechanism is predominantly solvent evaporation, oxidation or some chemical reaction. Gloss paints which dry essentially by solvent evaporation, reply on a fairly hard resin as the vehicle.

Paints which dry by oxidation, the vehicle is usually an oil or an oil-based varnish, these usually contains driers to accelerate the drying of the oil. Paint based essentially on oil with suitable pigment such as titanium dioxide, extenders, and usually zinc – oxide and white lead, are conventional outside ho use paints because these materials give the combination of properties which meet this requirement.

1.2 Statement of Problems

Investigation revealed that the major problems associated with such coatings are their greater tendency towards increasing corrosion of substrate material owing to the presence of water. The coatings showed improved corrosion and abrasion resistance, and better resistance to chemicals and organic solvents.

The Nigerian paint industry is currently facing the problem of scarcity and high cost of raw materials for paints production due to the dependence on the imported raw materials, and manufacturers are being encouraged to source for raw materials locally (Opara, 2014; Iwelunmo, 2017; Okon, 2017).

1.3 Aim and Objectives of Study

The aim of the study is to examine The Use of Local Pigments and Extenders for Formulation and Production of Emulsion Paint. In achieving this aim, the following specific objectives were laid out as follows:

  1. To study the formulation and production of emulsion paint with the use of local pigments and extenders as raw materials;
  2. To examine the economic value of formulation and production of emulsion paint;
  3. To disclose some locally sourced materials from our local environment that could play the same role with the imported raw materials that are used for emulsion paint production, which causes the cost of emulsion paint production to be high.

However, industrial survey reveals that paint manufacturers in Nigeria looks beyond the country territory for supply, and also, Nigerian paints industry is characterized by importation, starting from solvents which could be obtained in abundance from the country.

1.4 Significance of Study

On considering the high cost of imported raw materials for the production of emulsion paint in the paint industry, which at the end of the production affect the market price, likewise causing economy constrain, there is need to lookout for those locally raw materials such as pigments and extenders (e.g calcium carbonate) which will give such desirable qualities and properties as those of imported raw materials (e.g Titanium Dioxide).

It will be interesting to not6e that chemical Engineering have some of possible solutions towards reduction of high cost of emulsion paint production and also this research project work is directed towards the vital needs for the used of local pigments and extenders as raw materials for the production of emulsion paint of high quality and standards which will stand the test of time and also compete with those emulsion paints produced with imported raw materials.

Finally, this research project work will be of more importance to the paint manufacturers in the country, who spend lost of money for importations of raw material, while they are bless with much raw materials as pigments and extenders for emulsion paint production in their country, it will also be of help to students researchers, and also reveals the importance of research among producers for future betterment and economy improvement.

1.5 Scope of Study

The scope of this research work is organized to cover all vital aspect of emulsion paint formulation and production using local pigment and extenders as raw materials from our local environment, which will reduce the cost of emulsion paint production.

The scope will also cover paint types and classifications, characterization and functions of paints, and also chemicals used in the formulation and production of emulsion paint. However, emphasis will be laid on the systematic procedure of processing the local pigments and extenders used which will also cover the following;

  1. Emulsion paint formulation and production;
  2. Run-rest on the following properties of emulsion paint;
  • Drying time
  • Nature of reversibility
  • PH value
  • Specific gravity
  • Obscurity
  • Viscosity
  • Resistance to external exposure
  • Brush ability

1.6 Limitations of the Study

During the course of this study, many things militated against its completion, some of which are:

  1. Time Constraint: The time frame given to accomplish this project was very short due to school academic calendar and it was carried out under pressure which made the researcher not to implement some necessary features.
  2. Research material: availability of research material is a major setback to the scope of the study.
  3. Frequent power failure: This made the researcher append more money on fuel to ensure sustainable power.
  4. Financial Constraint: Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet).


2.0 Literature Review

2.1 Introduction

This chapter focuses on the review of related literature. A literature review includes the current knowledge as well as theoretical and methodological contributions to a particular topic. It documents the state of the art with respect to the topic you are writing. It surveys the literature in the topic selected. In this research work the literature review includes the …

Summary Headlines for The Use of Local Pigments and Extenders for Formulation and Production of Emulsion Paint

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