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Design and Implementation of an Electronic Based Ticketing A Case Study of Nigeria Railway Corporation

Design and Implementation of an Electronic Based Ticketing

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Reference ID: PS-897-TM

DEDICATION

This research material titled “Design and Implementation of an Electronic Based Ticketing” is dedicated to God for his enabling grace, and to all computer enthusiasts who contributed to make life a pleasant experience during my research documentation.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I extend my sincere gratitude to all those who contributed to the completion of this project. Special thanks to my Supervisor (Name of your Supervisor), the Head of Department (Name of your HOD), the Lecturers in the department of Computer Science (CS), Book Authors and Profound Scholars of existing or related project material on “Design and Implementation of an Electronic Based Ticketing” for their invaluable guidance, support, and expertise throughout the journey.

I am also grateful to your study area (mention any funding organizations, if applicable) for their financial assistance. This research would not have been possible without the encouragement and assistance of some stakeholders (mention any mentors, teachers, or colleagues). Additionally, I would like to acknowledge the understanding and patience of my family and friends during this endeavor. Your unwavering support has been a constant source of motivation. Thank you all for being part of this meaningful endeavor.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PRELIMINARY PAGES


CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION


    CHAPTER TWO

    LITERATURE REVIEW

    • 2.1 Introduction

    CHAPTER THREE

    SYSTEM ANALYSIS AND DESIGN

    • 3.1 Methodology Adopted
    • 3.1.1 Problem Identification Using SSADM
    • 3.2 Analysis of the Existing System
    • 3.2.1 Dataflow of the Existing System
    • 3.2.2 Disadvantages Of The Existing System
    • 3.2.3 Weakness of the existing System
    • 3.3 Feasibility Study
    • 3.3.1 Economic Feasibility
    • 3.3.2 Technical Feasibility
    • 3.3.3 Operational Feasibility
    • 3.4 Analysis of the Proposed System
    • 3.4.1 Data Flow Diagram of the Proposed System
    • 3.4.2 Advantages of the Proposed System
    • 3.4.3 Justification of the Proposed System
    • 3.5 Functional Requirements
    • 3.5.1 Use Case Diagram Of The Admin / User Privileges
    • 3.6 Data Requirements
    • 3.7 High Level Model of the Proposed System

    CHAPTER FOUR

    SYSTEM DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION

    • 4.1 Objectives of the Design
    • 4.2 Cohesion and Decomposition High level Model
    • 4.3 Control Center / Overall Dataflow Diagram
    • 4.3.1 Proposed System Operation Flowchart
    • 4.4 System Specification and Design
    • 4.4.1 Input and Output Specification
    • 4.4.2 Database Specification and Design
    • 4.4.3 Data Dictionary
    • 4.5 Choice and Justification of Programming Language
    • 4.6 Program Documentation
    • 4.7 Implementation Techniques
    • 4.7.1 System Testing
    • 4.8 Programming Module Specification
    • 4.8.1 Installation
    • 4.9 Computer Hardware Minimum Requirement
    • 4.10 Software Requirement
    • 4.11 Personnel / User Training
    • 4.12 File Maintenance Module

    CHAPTER FIVE

    SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

    • 5.1 Introduction
    • 5.2 Summary
    • 5.3 Conclusion
    • 5.4 Recommendation

    REFERENCES

    APPENDIX A - “SOURCE CODE”

    APPENDIX B - “OBJECT PROGRAM”

    ABSTRACT

    Electronic Ticketing (E-Ticketing) System is used to represent the purchase of a set for a passenger, usually through a website or by telephone. The aim of the study is to design and implement an Electronic Based Ticketing using Nigeria Railway Corporation as a case study. In achieving this aim, the following specific objectives were laid out as follows to develop an application software that will improve the existing ticket and daily seat reservations system in Nigeria Railway Corporation and automatically update company's records by passengers' transactions via the Internet.

    The motivation that led to the implementation of the proposed system is as a result of the inefficiency of the manual ticketing implored at present by the railway Corporation was very obvious after a careful and thorough search, study and investigation. Also, there is ineffective record keeping of passengers profile, inefficient ticketing system that cannot match high rate of tickets demand by passengers.

    The methodology adopted in this study is the structured system analysis and design methodology (SSADM) which is a technical approach for analyzing and designing an application or system by applying object throughout the software development process. The programming language used is HTML, CSS, JAVASCRIPT, PHP, SQL and JQUERY. The reason why web programming languages was used is because, it is platform independent and it is a web based application.

    The important of this study is geared upgrading the manual system of buying tickets to move effective and convenient way using the Internet; E-ticketing that allows passengers to buy the ticket from anywhere and at anytime. This will save Nigeria railway Corporation time and financial resources used in hiring staff and thus channel it's limited resources towards the important ventures and expansion. The expected result is an Electronic Based Ticketing for Railway Corporation that will provide the company with information and services to customers and analyze the design of a fully functional automated ticketing and booking system that will be implemented online (through the Internet) to enable passengers buy their ticket, which can be used on a future dates, and made a seat reservation on any of their train stations.


    Design and Implementation of an Electronic Based Ticketing (A Case Study of Nigeria Railway Corporation)

    CHAPTER ONE

    1.1 Introduction

    Electronic Ticketing (E-Ticketing) System is used to represent the purchase of a set for a passenger, usually through a website or by telephone. This form of purchase is rapidly replacing the old paper tickets. Once a reservation is made, an e-ticket exists only as a digital record in the transport owner's computers. Customers usually print out a copy of their receipt which contains the record locator or reservation number and thee e-ticket number. Rail transport as one of the most important means of transport, has played an important role in the transport industry in Nigeria. With Chinese rapid economic development, the railway lines and passengers have been increasing year by year in the country. With such a huge customer base, buying train tickets problem has been very prominent. The electronic commerce could solve the problem of railway ticketing. Introduced a new online ticketing system is not only technological innovation, but also will improve the railway services, to a certain extent, solve the difficult problem of railway ticketing.

    As a prelude to other parts of this study, this chapter will discuss the background upon which this study was initiated, the statement of problems that led to this study, the Aim and Objectives of the study. Others are Significance of the study, Scope of work, Limitations of the Study and Definition of technical terms.


    1.2 Background of Study

    Since the advent of the Internet, there have been several innovative changes in business transaction as a result of technological advancement, particularly in the field of electronics and telecommunication across the globe. Staff strength to the minimal various forms of trade have emerged from. This technological advancement has eased of these bureaucratic bottleneck and stress encountered in day-to-day business activities. Internet facilities have made purchasing a lot easier for customers who want to enjoy goods services from various companies. One can browse through the Internet in search of this need at the comfort of hiss home or office.

    It is evident that the continued growth of Internet as a means of communication and interaction has provided ample opportunities for business activities. For example, electronic ticking is Internet commerce at work. The aim is to facilitate the buying of tickets or seat reservation online, thus making the process easily accessible, less stressful, and convenient through these serves. Tickets may be purchase from any location at any time provided an Internet connection is accessible. Typically, the tickets are ordered from a web site that provides both tickets information and purchasing or reservation service. So customers need not to meet an agent or seller to make a seat reservation or purchase a ticket for his travel. To effect this, many of the established Internet security standards are used often in vision, the ensure safe and reliable payment and ticket delivery.

    Companies on the other hand have gotten a better means to showcase, promote and sell their staff strength to thee minimal. Various forms of trade have emerged from this technological breakthrough “Internet” but most intensity and existing is the concept of Electronic Commerce (E-commerce). E-commerce involves business transaction over the Internet. It involves various techniques for conducting business through or using electronics assistance. With the emergence of E-commerce, business transactions have become less cumbersome, thus opening up a good opportunity for an efficient and effective way of managing business, making it affordable to the buyer and seller. It has gone a long way, as well as creating a cashless society.

    This project work is a detailed work carried out on the application of E-ticketing, it's prospects and limitations. It tends to exploit and thus, showcase the importance of Internet based ticketing Service System (E-ticketing) in the transportation sector and the methods used to safeguards their usage especially in railway scheme. The project is explicit on how the system of ticketing will meet passengers requests in the system and how the company will manage these information from their database system to check fraud and secure customers personal information. Nigeria Railway Corporation was used as a case study.


    1.3 Statement of Problem

    Investigation revealed that the problem encountered at present with the manual ticketing system use by the company ranges from customers care, records, accounts and time constraints. The inefficiency of the manual ticketing implored at present by the railway Corporation was very obvious after a careful and thorough search, study and investigation.

    The opinions of the passengers (customers) were also sampled to ascertain these problems as well. The inefficient ticketing system and insufficient information presently posted at the corporation website was reviewed. The major difficulties encountered as received by the study include:

    1. Problem of ineffective record keeping of passengers profile.
    2. Inefficient ticketing system that cannot match high rate of tickets demand by passengers.
    3. Problems of not managing passenger's booking for advance travel schedule.
    4. Problem of poor financial record keeping of daily transactions.
    5. Problems of lack of expansion on the side of thee corporation due to frequent disorganization and mismanagement of funds.
    6. Problems of inadequate customers care relation.

    1.4 Aim and Objectives of the Study

    The aim of the study is to design and implement an Electronic Based Ticketing using Nigeria Railway Corporation as a case study. In achieving this aim, the following specific objectives were laid out as follows to develop an application software that will:

    1. Improve the existing ticket and daily seat reservations system in Nigeria Railway Corporation;
    2. Automatically update company's records by passengers' transactions via the Internet;
    3. Provide the company with information and services to customers; and
    4. Analyze the design of a fully functional automated ticketing and booking system that will be implemented online (through the Internet) to enable passengers buy their ticket, which can be used on a future dates, and made a seat reservation on any of their train stations.

    1.5 Significance of Study

    The important of this study is geared upgrading the manual system of buying tickets to move effective and convenient way using the Internet; E-ticketing that allows passengers to buy the ticket from anywhere and at anytime. This will save Nigeria railway Corporation time and financial resources used in hiring staff and thus channel it's limited resources towards the important ventures and expansion.

    It will as well make it posed meet the modern technology and be better placed to be more competitive and favorable with other companies in the transport sector. It will also position it better to a move efficient in service delivery to its numerous customers and make it outstanding in terms of customers care as the management will be able to receive compliments from its customers promptly through the Internet.

    Through this study also, it is believed that the use of E-ticketing will be adopted by other sectors of transportation in Nigeria. Above all, the customers’ interest will be protected and they will have many options to choose at their convenience and discretion.

    This study will be of immense benefit to other researchers who intend to know more on this study and can also be used by non-researchers to build more on their research work. This study contributes to knowledge and could serve as a guide for other study.


    1.6 Scope of Study

    The scope of the research is focused on the Design and Implementation of an Electronic Based Ticketing using Nigeria Railway Corporation as a case study.


    1.7 Limitations of the Study

    During the course of this study, many things militated against its completion, some of which are:

    1. Time Constraint: The time frame given to accomplish this project was very short due to school academic calendar and it was carried out under pressure which made the researcher not to implement some necessary features.
    2. Establishment Policies: Establishment policies posed a serious limitation as most staffs are not ready to release information needed for this project work. There were lots of information needed from the staffs of this institution to enhance the study which took them time to release or they did not release at all for security purposes, hence the scope was reduced.
    3. Research material: availability of research material is a major setback to the scope of the study.
    4. Frequent power failure: This made the researcher append more money on fuel to ensure sustainable power.
    5. Financial Constraint: Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet).

    1.8 Definition of Terms

    Tickets: A written or printed pieces of cards or paper that gives the holder certain right.

    Electronic Ticket (E-Ticket): Is used to represent the purchase of a set for a passenger, usually through a website or by telephone. This form of purchase is rapidly replacing the old paper tickets.

    CHAPTER TWO

    2.0 Literature Review

    2.1 Introduction

    This chapter focuses on the review of related literature. A literature review includes the current knowledge as well as theoretical and methodological contributions to a particular topic. It documents the state of the art with respect to the topic you are writing. It surveys the literature in the topic selected. In this research work the literature review includes the …

    Summary Headlines for Design and Implementation of an Electronic Based Ticketing



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