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Evaluation of Bearing Capacity of Soil Layers A Case Study of Owerri Federal Constituency

Evaluation of Bearing Capacity of Soil Layers

Project / Seminar Material
Reference ID: PS-448-TM

DEDICATION

This research material titled “Evaluation of Bearing Capacity of Soil Layers” is dedicated to God for his enabling grace, and to all computer enthusiasts who contributed to make life a pleasant experience during my research documentation.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I extend my sincere gratitude to all those who contributed to the completion of this project. Special thanks to my Supervisor (Name of your Supervisor), the Head of Department (Name of your HOD), the Lecturers in the department of Civil Engineering, Book Authors and Profound Scholars of existing or related project material on “Evaluation of Bearing Capacity of Soil Layers” for their invaluable guidance, support, and expertise throughout the journey.

I am also grateful to your study area (mention any funding organizations, if applicable) for their financial assistance. This research would not have been possible without the encouragement and assistance of some stakeholders (mention any mentors, teachers, or colleagues). Additionally, I would like to acknowledge the understanding and patience of my family and friends during this endeavor. Your unwavering support has been a constant source of motivation. Thank you all for being part of this meaningful endeavor.


Evaluation of Bearing Capacity of Soil Layers (A Case Study of Owerri Federal Constituency)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PRELIMINARY PAGES


CHAPTER ONE

  • 1.0 Introduction
  • 1.1 General
  • 1.2 Aims and Objective of Study
  • 1.3 Scope of the Study
  • 1.4 Definition of Terms

CHAPTER TWO

  • 2.0 Literature Review
  • 2.1 General
  • 2.2 Methods for Evaluating Bearing Capacity
  • 2.2.1 Standard Penetration Test (SPT)
  • 2.2.2 Significance of Standard Penetration Test
  • 2.2.3 Standard Penetration Test corrections
  • 2.2.4 Purpose of Standard Penetration
  • 2.2.5 Sampling and Testing
  • 2.2.6 Apparatus used for SPT
  • 2.3 Shear Strength of Soil
  • 2.4 Effective Stress Analysis
  • 2.5 Total Stress
  • 2.6 Derivation of Bearing Capacity

CHAPTER THREE

  • 3.0 Methodology
  • 3.1 Data Collection
  • 3.2 Standard Penetration Test
  • 3.2.1 Sampling Procedure
  • 3.2.2 Precaution taken for Accuracy
  • 3.3 Shear Box Test
  • 3.3.1 Procedure for the test
  • 3.3.2 Precautions
  • 3.4 Natural Moisture Content of Soil
  • 3.4.1 Procedure for the test
  • 3.4.2 Precautions

CHAPTER FOUR

  • 4.0 Presentation of Data and Analysis
  • 4.1 Shear Box test Computation
  • 4.2 Natural Moisture Content
  • 4.3 Calculation for Bulk Density of Soil
  • 4.4 Calculation for dry Unit Weight of Soil
  • 4.5 Calculation for Bearing Capacity of Soil
  • 4.6 Data Analysis

CHAPTER FIVE

  • 5.0 Conclusion
  • 5.1 Comparison of the Strength displayed by the various soil samples
  • 5.2 Recommendation
  • 5.3 REFERENCES
  • APPENDIX

ABSTRACT

This project dealt with the Evaluation of Bearing Capacity of Soil Layers using standard penetration test as a guide, a case study of Owerri federal constituency which comprises Owerri North, Owerri West and Owerri Municipal, Imo State.

It is carried out to ascertain the bearing capacities of soil existing in above three locations namely; Owerri North, Owerri West and Owerri Municipal all in Owerri Federal Constituency of Imo State.

Standard penetration test was used among other methods due to its simplicity. Soil samples of one meter and two meter depths were collected from three locations under study. The soil samples were tested for the bulk density, dry unit weight, natural moisture content and finally with the use of Terzaghi's general equation qf = CNC+rD+Nq½rBNr, the bearing capacities of the soil samples were calculated and analyzed.

From the results of the experiments, it was observed that Naze and Uratta representing Owerri North have the maximum bearing capacities of 1046KN/M2 and 1417KN/M2 which attributed to their high resistance to structural load.


Evaluation of Bearing Capacity of Soil Layers (A Case Study of Owerri Federal Constituency)

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 Introduction

1.1 General

The term Bearing Capacity is the largest intensity of pressure which may be applied to a structure to the soil without causing failure of soil in shear or excessive settlement.

All the Engineering structures such as Dams, Buildings, Bridges, Culvert, etc are founded on the soil and their loads are transferred to the underlying sub-strata through foundations. To ensure safe transfer of the load to the underground soil in such a manner that no shear failure or excessive settlement occurs, there is need to ascertain the bearing capacity or the resistance of the sub-strata.

Because of the structural collapse which is becoming rampant, this project research is channelled towards the evaluation of bearing capacity of the different soil layers to ascertain their resistance to structural load.

There are other methods of evaluating the bearing capacity of soils such as:

Plate Load Test

Cone Penetration Test

But the method employed in this project is Standard Penetration Test due to its simplicity.

There are many types of Bearing Capacity which include:

Allowable Bearing Capacity which deals with the maximum pressure applied to the soil such that the induced stress in the soil is lesser than its capacity and the settlement in the soil is within the tolerance limit of the super structure.


1.2 Aims and Objectives of the Study

The purpose of this project is to determine the bearing capacity of soil layers existing in different locations within the Owerri Federal Constituency.

As the bearing capacity of soil layers vary from place to place and with depth, this project work will assist Engineers in recommending the type of structure to be erected on any part of the soil within the Owerri Federal Constituency.

Another objective of this study is in comparison with its case study at three locations thus:Nekede, Naze and Owerri municipal all in Owerri Federal Constituency.

This project work will also help to bring to the knowledge of the stake holders the soil strata and the depth to which foundations have to be safely established for effective transfer of structural load to the soil.


1.3 Scope of the Study

While carrying out this project on the bearing capacity of soil layers, soil samples were collected from these locations; Nekede, Naze and Owerri municipal all in Owerri Federal Constituency of Imo State for analysis. The scope of this project work involves going to the three locations for the collections of soil samples, laboratory test, experimentation and analysis of data using standard penetration test as a guide and finally the result of the analysis.


1.4 Definition of Terms


1.4.1 Cohesion (C):

This is defined as the frictional resistance between soil grains.


1.4.2 Angle of Internal Friction(Q):

This is defined as the angle occurring between the base and the shear plane.


1.4.3 Bulk Density (W):

This is the mass of the dry soil material including the solid particles and any contained water to its volume including voids.


1.4.4 Dry Density (D):

This is the mass of the dry soil material after drying to a constant weight at 105OC contained in a unit volume of undried material.


1.4.5 Moisture Content (W):

This is the quantity of water which can be removed from the soil by heating at 105OC expressed as a percentage of the dry weight.


1.4.6 Nr, Nc, Nq:

These are defined as the dimensionless bearing capacity factors which depend on the angle of material friction. ?.


1.4.7 Net Ultimate Bearing Capacity (Qnm):

This is the minimum net pressure intensity causing shear failure of soil.


1.4.8 Net Foundation Pressure (Qnf):

This is the total foundation pressure less the effective weight of the soil permanently reduced.


1.4.9 Net Safe Bearing Capacity:

This is the bearing capacity divided by factor of safety.


1.4.10 Angle of Obliquity:

This is defined as the angle formed by the resultant of frictional force and downward vertical force with the normal to the plane.

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 Literature Review

2.1 Introduction

This chapter focuses on the review of related literature. A literature review includes the current knowledge as well as theoretical and methodological contributions to a particular topic. It documents the state of the art with respect to the topic you are writing. It surveys the literature in the topic selected. In this research work the literature review includes the …

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