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Evaluation of Pharmacognosticparameters and Hepatotoxic Effects of Extractsof Cassytha Filiformis Linn on ParacetamolInduced Liver Disorders in Wister Rats

Evaluation of Pharmacognosticparameters and Hepatotoxic Effects of Extractsof Cassytha Filiformis Linn on Paracetamol-Induced Liver Disorders in Wister Rats

Project / Seminar Material
Reference ID: PS-409-TM

DEDICATION

This research material titled “Evaluation of Pharmacognosticparameters and Hepatotoxic Effects of Extractsof Cassytha Filiformis Linn on Paracetamol-Induced Liver Disorders in Wister Rats” is dedicated to God for his enabling grace, and to all computer enthusiasts who contributed to make life a pleasant experience during my research documentation.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I extend my sincere gratitude to all those who contributed to the completion of this project. Special thanks to my Supervisor (Name of your Supervisor), the Head of Department (Name of your HOD), the Lecturers in the department of Pharmaceutical Technology / Science, Book Authors and Profound Scholars of existing or related project material on “Evaluation of Pharmacognosticparameters and Hepatotoxic Effects of Extractsof Cassytha Filiformis Linn on Paracetamol-Induced Liver Disorders in Wister Rats” for their invaluable guidance, support, and expertise throughout the journey.

I am also grateful to your study area (mention any funding organizations, if applicable) for their financial assistance. This research would not have been possible without the encouragement and assistance of some stakeholders (mention any mentors, teachers, or colleagues). Additionally, I would like to acknowledge the understanding and patience of my family and friends during this endeavor. Your unwavering support has been a constant source of motivation. Thank you all for being part of this meaningful endeavor.

ABSTRACT

Cassytha filiformis, a leafless and perennial vine with small scales as a replacement of the leavesis currently being used in the treatment of various disease conditions including jaundice without standardization.Microscopical evaluation, chromatographic analysis (TLC, HPLC, LC-MS/MS), spectroscopic analyses (NMR, FTIR, MS) and hepathoprotective studies were carried out with the view to scientifically verify the potentials of this plant used in traditional medicine. The results revealed the presence of some diagnostic microscopical features such as paracytic stomata, unicellular covering trichomes with cystoliths, prismatic calcium oxalate crystals and annular xylem vessels. Quantitative physical constants include moisture contents (5.5 %), ash value (17 %), acid insoluble ash value (1 %), total tannins (27.3 %), swelling index (165 %), water, alcohol and oil extractive indices (20.6 %, 13.6 % and 1.6 % respectively).

Trace metals detected in C. filiformis such as Fe (165.4279 ppm), Mn (14.4093 ppm) and Ni (2.7933 ppm) which are essential were higher than FAO/WHO (1984) permissible limit for edible plants. While others:Pb (0.0568 ppm) Zn (0.1094 ppm), Cd (0.0103 ppm) and Cu (0.0535 ppm) were found to be within the safety limit. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the plant signifies the presence of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, saponins and steroids Phytochemical constituents identified in ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of C. filiformis include 3,3,O-di-O-methyl ellagic acid, catechin, chalcone compounds, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, isorhamnetin 3-O-rutinoside or isorhamnetin 3-O-neohesperidoside, kaemferol 3 rutinoside and 2-{cyclohex-2-en-1-yl(hydroxyl)methyl}-3-hydroxy-4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-3-methyl- oxoprolinate while that of methanol fraction include 3,3,O-di-O-methyl etllagic acid, methy2-{cyclohex-2-ene-1-y(hydroxyl)methyl}-3hydroxy-4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-3-methyl-5-oxoprolinate, kaemferol 3 rutinoside, rutin and cathechinas revealed by the library search on LC-MS/MS. Other compounds β-sitosterol and stigmasterol wereisolated from petroleum ether extracts.The petroleum ether extract (500 mgkg-1) and methanol (500 and 1000 mgkg-1) exhibited hepatoprotection properties on wistar albino rats. These results could serve as bases for the use of the plant in traditional medicine for the prevention of liver disorders.


Evaluation of Pharmacognosticparameters and Hepatotoxic Effects of Extractsof Cassytha Filiformis Linn on Paracetamol-Induced Liver Disorders in Wister Rats

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 Introduction

The role of plants in the treatment of disease is exemplified by their employment in all the major systems of medicine irrespective of the underlying philosophical premise. As example, we have the western medicine with origin in Mesopotamia and Egypt, the Unani (Islamic) and the Ayurvedic (Hindu) system and in Western Asia and the Indian subcontinent and those of the Orient (China, Japan, Tibetetc.). There is a great wealth of knowledge concerning the medicinal,narcotic and other properties of plants that is still transmitted orally from generation to generation by tribal societies, particularly those of the tropical Africa, North and South America and the Pacific countries (Evans, 2009). These are areas containing the world's greatest number of plant species, not found elsewhere, and with the westernization of so many of the people of these zones there is pressing need to record local knowledge before it is lost forever. In addition, with the extermination of plant species progressing at an alarming rate in certain regions, even before plant have been botanically recorded, much less studied chemically and pharmacologically, the need arises for increased efforts directed towards the conservation of gene pools (Evans, 2009).

Since plant taxa are defined by their morphology (more specifically on the morphology of the flowering parts), identification techniques have relied almost entirely on physical examination of the specimen. However, drying and powdering alters or destroys diagnostic features and the plant parts traded in commerce may not include the parts necessary for establishing botanical identity. Classical description in compendia reflect this approach with physical descriptions that include appearance, color, order, and fracture.

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 Literature Review

2.1 Introduction

This chapter focuses on the review of related literature. A literature review includes the current knowledge as well as theoretical and methodological contributions to a particular topic. It documents the state of the art with respect to the topic you are writing. It surveys the literature in the topic selected. In this research work the literature review includes the …

Summary Headlines for Evaluation of Pharmacognosticparameters and Hepatotoxic Effects of Extractsof Cassytha Filiformis Linn on Paracetamol-Induced Liver Disorders in Wister Rats



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