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SocioCultural Impact of Childless Married Couples

Socio-Cultural Impact of Childless Married Couples

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Reference ID: PS-610-TM

DEDICATION

This research work titled "Socio-Cultural Impact of Childless Married Couples" is dedicated to God for his enabling grace and to all computer enthusiasts who help to make life a pleasant experience.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I owe my indebtedness to my Supervisor (Name of your Supervisor), the Head of Department (Name of your HOD), the Lecturers in the department of Sociology, Book Authors and Profound Scholars of existing/related research material for your moral support that facilitated the successful completion of my (Tertiary Institution level). I am grateful to God Almighty and my parent for their financial support in my career. I really appreciate you all for everything, Thank you very much.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PRELIMINARY PAGES


CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION


    CHAPTER TWO

    LITERATURE REVIEW

    • 2.1 Introduction
    • 2.2 Conceptual Review
    • 2.3 Theoretical Framework
    • 2.4 Empirical Studies

    CHAPTER THREE

    RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

    • 3.1 Introduction
    • 3.2 Research Design
    • 3.3 Population of Study
    • 3.4 Sampling and Sampling Technique
    • 3.5 Validation of Research Instrument
    • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
    • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
    • 3.8 Questionnaire Administration
    • 3.9 Ethical Consideration
    • 3.10 Statistical Analysis

    CHAPTER FOUR

    DATA ANALYSIS, RESULT AND DISCUSSION

    • 4.1 Introduction
    • 4.2 Presentation and Analysis of Data
    • 4.3 Re-statement of Research Questions
    • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses
    • 4.5 Discussion of Findings

    CHAPTER FIVE

    SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

    • 5.1 Introduction
    • 5.2 Summary of Findings
    • 5.3 Conclusion
    • 5.4 Recommendation
    • 5.5 Suggestion for Further Study

    REFERENCES

    APPENDIX A - “QUESTIONNAIRE”

    ABSTRACT

    Childless is the inability to conceive and bear a child for married couples. It has major psychological and social implications for affected persons, especially in settings where fertility is highly valued. The study was carried out to examine the Socio-Cultural Impact of Childless Married Couples. In achieving this aim, the following specific objectives were laid out to determine the relationship between childlessness and socio-cultural impact on married couples and examine the socio-cultural impact of childlessness on married couples in Nigeria. Investigation revealed that many people suffer from childlessness for so many reasons such as drug abuse, hard drugs effect; contraception, numerous abortions, and some are genetically inherited. The research design used in this report is descriptive design, utilizing questionnaire method to obtain information from the respondents for this project. A total of 133 (one hundred and thirty three) respondents were selected for this study to represent the entire population of the study. For null hypotheses were formulated and tested using the one-way ANOVA and the t-test statistical tools at zero point zero five (0.05) level of significance. Primary data were collected from the primary source which questionnaire was used as an instrument of data collection while secondary data were sources from textbooks, journals, newspapers and the internet were employed. The data were presented on a frequency distribution table and analyzed using simple percentage, while hypothesis was tested using chi-square test. Findings show that not having children, whether voluntarily or not, contributes to a kind of invisibility and poverty in Nigeria. Regardless of the reason, voluntary childlessness evoked strong negative feelings among family members. Based on the findings, it is recommended that childless couples should seek for medical treatment jointly instead of allowing one partner to carry the burden alone among others.


    Socio-Cultural Impact of Childless Married Couples

    CHAPTER ONE

    1.1 Introduction

    Childless is the inability to conceive and bear a child for married couples. It may have personal, social and or political significance (Peter, 2010). Childlessness has major psychological and social implications for affected persons, especially in settings where fertility is highly valued. It has varied consequences through its effects on societies and on the lifestyles and life chances of individuals. The childless lifestyle enhances life satisfaction for some individuals, while diminishing it for others, for whom parenthood was a personal goal. For societies, childlessness is a factor in low birth rates and population decline, with which are associated diminishing labour force entries and rising proportions in older ages.

    As a prelude to other parts of this study, this chapter will discuss the background upon which this study was initiated, the statement of problems that led to this study, the Aim and Objectives of the study. Others are Significance of the study, Scope of work, Research hypothesis and questions, Limitations of the Study and Definition of technical terms.


    1.2 Background of Study

    In marriage, childlessness is one aspect of the diversity inherent in contemporary experience of marriage and the family. For most of history, childlessness has been regarded as great personal tragedy involving much emotional pain and grief, especially when it is resulted from failure to conceive or from the death of a child. With this greater diversity, once common pressures for childbearing have given way to greater social acceptance of remaining single or married without children. Before conception was well understood, childlessness was usually blamed on the woman and this in itself added to the high level negative emotional and social effects of childlessness.

    Studies of the advantages and disadvantages of childlessness in later life suggest that well-being is not necessarily dependent on children, because the childless can meet their expressive (emotional) needs through greater contact with other relatives, friends, and neighbours, as well as with organizations such as clubs and churches. However, the childless in poor health appear to have a higher risk of social isolation or of admission to aged care institutions. This implies that the support networks of the childless elderly are less effective in providing instrumental (practical) support, at least when the need is continuing.

    Although the majority of the elderly do not necessarily see family care as the best alternative, without the prospect of periodic help from children, or their assistance as a last resort, the childless must be more reliant on formal services or institutional care. Thus, as cohorts with high proportions childless reach the older ages, family centered approaches to aged care become less effective. In the late twentieth century, many of the aged in industrialized countries had few close relatives, which brought to the fore questions about their access to support. The decline of childlessness among later cohorts is now reducing the prevalence of such problems. However, by the 2020s, similar concerns about the adequacy of personal resources will confront the 1950s cohorts, as childlessness continues to shape their destiny. The proportions childless are unlikely to fall below 10 percent in any of the more developed countries for which data are available.

    Merriam Webster dictionary (2002) marriage is the legally or formally recognized union of a man and a woman. Though a universal phenomenon, cultural differences abound in the formation of the family and the universal features are important. Everybody makes choices on a daily basis; some of them are as simple as choosing a lunch menu but others are as serious as whom to marry. These choices, big or small, shape our lives and future. Whether or not to become a parent is one of the significant and serious choices. For most people, getting married and starting a family- having children-is not a matter of choice; they are a rite of passage.

    Some wealthy families also adopted children as a means of providing heirs in case of childlessness or where no son had been born, the monetary incentives offered by westerners desire for children is so strong that a commercial market in the child laundering business exists. Nonetheless, childlessness is a concern, partly because of its implications for the maintenance of societies and partly because of its unwanted consequences for individuals. However, societies regard children as the most important asset in every successful marriage and for this reason; childless couples become an object of ridicule in their communities.

    Therefore, in Nigeria where the research was carried out, the activities that was conducted is to know the Socio-cultural Impact of Childless Married Couples.


    1.3 Statement of Problems

    Investigation revealed that throughout the world and particularly in African societies, the word “childlessness” sends interest to the ears of listener and a sense of pity is immediately aroused in the mind. Children are regarded as great treasure to their parents, relations and their immediate community. Many people suffer from childlessness for so many reasons such as drug abuse, hard drugs effect, contraception, numerous abortions, and some are genetically inherited. Unfortunately in Nigeria, it is the woman who suffers most even when she is not the problem.

    Childlessness causes constant fights, misunderstanding and suspicion in the marriage. Sex becomes mechanical and unfulfilling. The risk of being sterile can be a heavy burden. The woman risk divorce and in some cases gets rivals. The number of childless couples is tremendously on the increase, this is evident to the fact that attempts to initiate a move which would have been directed towards adoption is taken with serious resistance in some places mostly by couples without even a child.

    However, there is difficulty in the way childless couples have been communicating with friends who do have children. They describe as negative (although sometimes well-meant) remarks within the couples' social worlds, for instance at birthday parties and other social gatherings. It is possible for childless couples to participate in the world of children, especially if couples have good friends or relatives who have children and on the cultural aspects of childlessness such family becomes isolated and the wife faces inheritance restrictions on property and burial rights, also there is usually marital instability including fear of the husband taking a second wife, divorce and physical abuse by partner.


    1.4 Aim and Objectives of Study

    The aim of the study is to examine the Socio-cultural Impact of Childless Married Couples. In achieving this aim, the following specific objectives were laid out as follows:

    1. To examine the socio-cultural impact of childlessness on married couples in Nigeria;
    2. To examine the factors responsible for infertility of couples in Nigeria; and
    3. To determine the relationship between childlessness and socio-cultural impact on married couples.

    1.5 Research Questions

    The study came up with research questions so as to be able to ascertain the above stated objectives. The specific research questions for the study are stated below as follows:

    • Is there a relationship between childlessness and socio-cultural impact on married couples?
    • What are the factors responsible for infertility of couples in Nigeria?
    • What is the socio-cultural impact of childlessness on married couples in Nigeria?

    1.6 Research Hypothesis

    In order to pursue the objective of this study, the following generalized statements have been designed to guide and aids in obtaining the result for the experiment to be conducted. For this work, the null hypothesis will be represented with H0 while the alternative hypothesis will be represented with hypothesis H1.

    Hypothesis One

    • H0: There is no significant socio-cultural impact of childlessness on married couples in Nigeria.
    • H1: There is a significant socio-cultural impact of childlessness on married couples in Nigeria.

    Hypothesis Two

    • H0: There is no significant relationship between childlessness and socio-cultural impact on married couples.
    • H1: There is a significant relationship between childlessness and socio-cultural impact on married couples.

    1.7 Significance of Study

    This study will be of immense benefit to other researchers who intend to know more on this study and can also be used by non-researchers to build more on their research work. This study contributes to knowledge and could serve as a guide for other study.


    1.8 Scope of Study

    The scope of the research is focused on the Socio-cultural Impact of Childless Married Couples; the study will be conducted in Selected Yoruba Communities in South-West Nigeria.


    1.9 Limitations of the Study

    During the course of this study, many things militated against its completion, some of which are:

    1. Time Constraint: The time frame given to accomplish this project was very short due to school academic calendar and it was carried out under pressure which made the researcher not to implement some necessary features.
    2. Establishment Policies: Establishment policies posed a serious limitation as most staffs are not ready to release information needed for this project work. There were lots of information needed from the staffs of this establishment to enhance the study which took them time to release or they did not release at all for security purposes, hence the scope was reduced.
    3. Research material: availability of research material is a major setback to the scope of the study.
    4. Frequent power failure: This made the researcher append more money on fuel to ensure sustainable power.
    5. Financial Constraint: Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

    1.10 Definition of Terms

    Childless: The inability to conceive and bear a child for married couples. It may have personal, social and or political significance (Peter, N. 2010).

    Contraception: It refers to a drug, device or practice used to prevent a woman from becoming pregnant.

    CHAPTER TWO

    2.0 Literature Review

    2.1 Introduction

    This chapter focuses on the review of related literature. A literature review includes the current knowledge as well as theoretical and methodological contributions to a particular topic. It documents the state of the art with respect to the topic you are writing. It surveys the literature in the topic selected. In this research work the literature review includes the …

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