This work is made to reduce the stress and increase in price that is associated with the use of manual method of grinding either in domestic, commercial or industrial grinding which requires a lot of man power. With fast growing technological advancement, this invention is primarily geared towards minimizing the use of manpower and stress in grinding, this new invention is made in a way that it will give a good and perfect grinding, also to make the work quick and at the same time phase out the use of manual grinding method. This new invention of a grinding gives a perfect work efficiency than the manual method i.e. manpower type.
1.1 Background Of The Study
Nigeria is a country where good policies are made but actualization of these well designed policies have remained a dream particularly in the area of science, technology and engineering research. However, some government agencies in the science and technology sector, some private engineering firms and some good engineers and technologists are working towards the area of industrial self-sufficiency.
The ever increasing level of unemployment and the resultant need to provide youths with saleable skills that could make them enterprising and self-reliant economically justifies the introduction of technological and vocational education into the new Nigerian Educational system.
Technological and vocational education enable youths to obtain practical based training in a wide range of technical course, trades and occupations, so that on completion, they can either take up paid employment in any establishment or start their own business and employ others. It is worthy to note that from the primitive era to the contemporary time, man has always been confronted with the need for well-designed tools and machines that will make his life comfortable and more convenient.
According to Science Teachers Association of Nigeria (STAN) (1991), the processing machines or equipment are the equipment used for processing harvested food crops into forms that they could be readily consumed, sold or stored for future cultivation. This study is based on observation by experts for increase in production output, then the need for a production machine should be incorporated into grinding of grains, cereals, etc.
1.2 Statement Of The Problem
One of the goal of engineering technology is to give training and impact the necessary skills to individual who shall be self-reliant economically. There are numerous evidences in research literature showing that most product of mechanical engineering programmes in Nigeria are not proficient technically, especially in the area of design and construction (Udofia, 2002; Unanaowo, 2005).
The absence of cheap and potable machine for grinding account for persistent use of the manual or hand method for grinding materials, despite its attendant problems of much time consumption, high energy consumption and lower rate of productivity. Besides, it's laborious and enervating. Since the use of locally design and constructed machines can greatly reduce the hard and drudgery associated with grinding, increase productivity of processed material, improve the nation's economy as well as enable technical and mechanical student to acquire more skill in the area of design and construction.
1.3 Purpose Of The Study
The main purpose of the study is to design and construct a simple, cheap and portable electrically operated machine for grinding. The study will specifically attempt to:
- Design a simple, cheap and portable machine for grinding materials.
- Develop a working drawing of the design machine.
- Construct the different part of the machine using metal pieces and other locally sourced materials
- Assemble the different part of the material together using such process as welding and the use of bolt, nut and screws.
- Test the machine to establish its functionality.
1.4 Significance Of The Study
The result of this study will be of immense benefit to the processing industries, house wives, entrepreneurs, engineering students and educational researchers. The general public will also benefit from the result of the study as the cost of grounded materials in the market will be greatly reduced through the use of the machine.
Engineering student will also benefit from the result of this study as they will learn how to design and construct a commercial grinding mill machine and other similar machines. Entrepreneurs and processing research institutes will also find the product of this study very useful as they can use the prototype of the design machine for mass production.
Lastly, the result of this study when publish will provide literature on design and construction of commercial grinding mill machines for mechanical engineering researchers.
1.5 Classification Of Grinding Mill
Basically, grinding mills are grouped into two categories such as;
- Domestic/commercial grinding mill
- Industrial grinding mill
- Domestic/Commercial Grinding Mill: E.g. Stone burr, Iron burr and hammer mills.
- Industrial Grinding Mill:E.g. Ball mill, rod mill Raymond mill etc
For the purposes of this study, only commercial grinding mill and its applications will be discussed.
1.6 Application Of Commercial Mill
1. Stone Burr Mill:
The stone burr mill produces the finest flour possible and is ideal for fine milling or dry, non-oily grain like wheat, corn, rye, oath etc.
2. Iron Burr Mill:
Iron burr mill are use for fine or coarse grinding of dry grain as well as wider range of materials including substances with high oil content such as suya beans, castor oil seeds, coffee, and spices. Among others, Iron Burr Mill burst high production rate at moderate cost when “talcum fine” flour is not required.
3. Hammer Mill:
Hammer Mill offer extremely aggressive pulverizing product by rotary action of a hardened steel hammer strap rotating in a steel closure. Product escapes the mill only when it is small enough to pass through the holes in heavy duty steel screen, which are interchangeable and available with a range hole sizing.
Pleasant mill grain offer commercial grain mill and general grinding equipment for a wide range of grinding needs. Most dry materials can be grind with Stone Burr Mill and both dry, wet and oily materials can be grind with Iron Burr Mills. Application includes grinding of wheat, corn, soya beans, buck wheat, oath, hulls, masa harina, spices, coffee, oil seed, egg shells, bones, roots, hulling of sun flowers, walnut, etc.
All commercial mills are fully adjustable for texture, fine flour to mill texture or “cracked grain” and are suitable for human consumption or animal feed.
1.7 Advantage Of Commercial Mill
- It is durable.
- It helps to reduce stress and makes improves speed rate of work
- It gives a good finish after grinding of the grain
- It is made of wear resistance alloy steel burrs for rapid and efficient grinding of wide range of dry or wet materials
- It can be used any where
- It can be used to grind wet or oily materials because of its non-porous burrs
- It is more reliable and stronger than the manual type of grinding mill
- The burr mill never require dressing and their alloy steel composition is long wearing.