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Fingerprint and Password Biometric Authentication of an Automated Teller Machine

Fingerprint and Password Biometric Authentication of an Automated Teller Machine

Project / Seminar Material
Reference ID: PS-531-TM

DEDICATION

This research work titled "Fingerprint and Password Biometric Authentication of an Automated Teller Machine" is dedicated to God for his enabling grace and to all computer enthusiasts who help to make life a pleasant experience.





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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I owe my indebtedness to my Supervisor (Name of your Supervisor), the Head of Department (Name of your HOD), the Lecturers in the department of Computer Engineering, Book Authors and Profound Scholars of existing/related research work for your moral support that facilitated the successful completion of my (Tertiary Institution level). I am grateful to God Almighty and my parent for their financial support in my career. I really appreciate you all for everything, Thank you very much.





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TABLE OF CONTENTS

PRELIMINARY PAGES

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • 1.1 Introduction
  • 1.2 Background …

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

  • 2.1 Introduction

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

  • 3.1 Introduction

CHAPTER FOUR

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

  • 4.1 Introduction

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Summary
  • 5.3 Conclusion
  • 5.4 Recommendation

REFERENCES




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Fingerprint and Password Biometric Authentication of an Automated Teller Machine

CHAPTER ONE

1.1 Introduction

Fingerprint and Password Biometric Authentication of an Automated Teller Machine is a system designed to assist bank customers and financial institutions to secure the accessibility of Automated Teller Machines (ATM). Automated Teller Machine (ATM) is a system connected to Inter-bank networks, enabling people to withdraw and deposit money from machines not belonging to the bank where they have their account or in the country where their accounts are held (Fernandez, 2013). Mobile technology has really accelerate in terms of it advancement to the extent that it has limitlessly left mobile application developers with no choice but to continue in it manipulation of its usefulness over and over (Leng, 2011). Furthermore Mobile tools are much stylishly made these days, so smart and handy which give room for collection of data in our mobile phones. Mobile phone gadgets are now doing the works of Global Positioning system (GPS) navigation gadget, because of it sensibility in accessing vital information concerning present location of valuable assets, places, friends and family.

As a prelude to other parts of this study, this chapter will discuss the background upon which this study was initiated, the statement of problems that led to this study, the Aim and Objectives of the study. Others are Significance of the study, Scope of work, Limitation of the study and Definition of technical terms.


1.2 Background of Study

In the olden days, financial institution in Nigeria did almost all their transactions manually, to allow customers perform their financial transactions and other banking processes. The customers have to form a queue which ends up consuming a lot of consumer's time and is not always efficient. In view of this and the fast wind of IT sweeping through Nigeria, had lead the bank to the utilization of an electronic device known as Automatic Teller Machine (ATM) for performing transaction without the physical presence of a bank delegate. Automated teller machine is a mechanical device that has its roots embedded in the accounts and records of a banking institution. It is a machine that allows the bank customers to carry out banking transactions like deposits, transfers, balance enquiries, mini statement, withdrawal and fast cash e.t.c. The ATM has gained wide utilization due to the 24 hours service it provides to customers (Khatmode et al., 2014).

Nearly 10 years since its introduction in Nigeria, the ATM has become the favored channel of financial transaction by most Nigerians. However, the expanding and wide acceptance of the ATM by the member of the public has led to a need to further build and enhance the security and integrity of the system. Utilization of ATM (Automatic Teller Machine) is helpful for monetary transaction. ATM transaction is initiated by inserting the ATM card and typing the PIN (Personal Identification Number) of that specific card. Despite the fact that bank allows their customers to choose their PIN, this system is not safe to use because anybody can access the system if they have the card and PIN number. The system looks at the code against a stored list of approved authorized passwords and users.

PIN typically in a form of four digit combination of numbers that is entered via the ATM panel. If the code is genuine, the system permits access at the security level approved for the owner of the account. The strength of PIN as a security system is weakened and the likelihood of the code leaking to other people is high. In recent time, due to fraudsters advancements and technological improvement it is now possible to fix ATM Card scanners in ATM Machine to acquire encoded information from ATM Card, which is again used to create a copy of the ATM card and to make fraudulent transactions. This is the primary impediment of the current system. Conventional ATM systems authentication method has some limitations. Using ATM card and password cannot;

  1. Verify the client's identity exactly.
  2. Protect the card user against theft.
  3. It is easy for fraudsters to get the PIN and perform fraudulent transactions.
  4. Protect customers from Vulnerabilities and the increasing wave of criminal activities occurring at Automated Teller Machines (ATMs.)

This has called for a more secure method of authentication at the ATM terminals. Biometrics based authentication is a potential technique in increasing ATM security. Among all the biometrics, fingerprint based identification is one of the most mature and proven technique. Biometric is a Greek Words, Bio means life and metric means measuring some objects that have life. Biometric measures both physiological and behavioral characteristics. These characteristics are finger prints, Voice patterns, hand measurements, irises and others (although this project will be limited to fingerprints alone). These characteristics are used to identify an individual, they are connected to an individual and cannot be forgotten, stolen, shared or easily hacked like passwords.

Finger Print technology is the initial biometric science that uses unique features of the fingerprint to identify or verify the identity of an individual. Finger Print technology is the most deployed technology among other biometric characteristics and it application ranges from physical access to logical access. Each and every human have unique characteristics and patterns. A Finger Print pattern or sample consists of lines and spaces and these lines are referred to as Ridges while the spaces between these ridges are called valleys. These ridges and valleys are matched for verification and authorization. These unique finger print traits are referred to as ?minutiae? and comparisons are made on these traits. There has been a significant surge in the use of Biometric based user authentication system in recent years because Bio-metric authentication offers several advantages over other authentication methods. The advantages that Biometrics presents are that the information is unique for each individual and that:

  1. It can identify the individual in spite of variations in the time.
  2. It provides strong authentication
  3. It can be easily implemented on existing system.
  4. There are very less chances of two people having same fingerprint.

Fingerprint is currently being used as variables of security during voting, operation of bank account among others. It is also used for controlling access to highly secured places like offices, equipment rooms, control centers and so on. The proposed system will be self manipulative, simple, fast and yet much more secure. It will provide a secure online transaction to protect the user against ATM Card frauds.


1.3 Statement of the Problems

Investigation revealed the challenges of the existing system which is plagued with the following problems;

  1. Traditional authentication systems cannot discriminate between an impostor who fraudulently obtains the access privileges and the real owner.
  2. Passwords and PINs can be illicitly acquired by direct covert observation.
  3. Easily guessed PIN's and passwords e.g. birthday, 1234 etc.
  4. Malware can be placed at the ATM terminal by fraudsters to capture magnetic stripe data and PIN codes from the private memory space of transaction processing application installed on the ATM.

1.4 Aim and Objective of the Study

The aim of the study is to Design and Implement of a Fingerprint and Password Biometric Authentication of an Automated Teller Machine that will combine PIN (Personal Authentication Number) verification system with finger print biometric system for more reliable authentication. In achieving this aim, the following specific objectives are laid out as follows:

  1. To explore the problem associated with the existing password Based system and pose the possible solutions;
  2. To implement the system with various customer biometric and PIN data and test its functionality and robustness; and
  3. To develop a payment system simulator with secure authentication using combination of biometric technology and Password (PIN).

1.5 Significance of the Study

The significance of the proposed system will be of immense benefit to the bank worker, the bank management and the customer at large. For the bank management it will reduce the huge amount of cash lost to ATM fraud every year. In present age, security has become an essential and fundamental tool of every organization. If we talk about money it comes with great importance. In the banking system, it is also a very confidential issue. The principle motivation behind ATM machine is to safeguard cash and ensure easy and fast accessibility to cash. But as of late a few security issues have emerge concerning the ATM.

The time spent by bank workers to resolve cases of ATM fraud too will be reduced thus affording them time for more pressing issues. Most bank provide the single (PIN) password authentication to their customers for ATM transactions but now a days it is no longer enough to guide the data and proof the identity of the customer. It is so easy for fraudsters to obtain the PIN and perform fraudulent operation on ATM. To guide against this type of frauds bank can utilize dual user verification system so that banking operations becomes more secure.

Furthermore, there is a sense of mistrust with PINs and Bank customers may feel that it is unsafe because they are worried that in the event that they lose their card that someone may find it and some way or the other is able to determine their PIN and steal their money from the ATM. In other to eliminate this threat, this project will focus on a consolidated strategy i.e. costumers insert their card & PIN, if costumers insert valid PIN then access is grant to another security approved process i.e. biometric fingerprint.

Utilizing legitimate PIN & biometric fingerprint costumer can perform ATM transaction process i.e. deposits, transfers, balance enquiries, mini statement, Fast cash & withdrawal etc. By using fingerprint recognition combined with the old PIN method, customers are more comfortable with the idea of saving their money with the bank because they understand that if they lose their ATM card, no one can replicate their fingerprint and take their money. In banking system Biometrics holds the guarantee of quick, easy to utilize, precise, reliable, and less expensive authentication.


1.6 Scope of Study

The scope of this research is focused on the Design and Implementation of Fingerprint and Password Biometric Authentication of an Automated Teller Machine. The proposed system will describe the simulation of an automated teller machine with the capability of the combination of both biometric (fingerprint) and password (PIN) based authentication with a view to provide a more secure Online banking transaction on ATM: Only banking system is captured.

The biometric authentication system will consists of five main components. These are: sensor, feature extractor, fingerprint/template database, and matcher and decision module.

1.7 Limitations of the study

During the course of this study, many things militated against its completion, some of which are:

  1. Time Constraint: The time frame given to accomplish this project was very short due to school academic calendar and it was carried out under pressure which made the researcher not to implement some necessary features.
  2. Establishment Policies: Establishment policies posed a serious limitation as most staffs are not ready to release information needed for this project work. There were lots of information needed from the staffs of this institution to enhance the study which took them time to release or they did not release at all for security purposes, hence the scope was reduced.
  3. User acceptability: Obtaining a clean image upon which to perform matching may be difficult due to Fingerprint worn out or cut due to hard labor work or age. The requirement of biometric devices in ATM Machines will improve the cost of ATM Machine.

Since the simulated system will be design using Visual Basic. Net, it won't be able to run on any other operating system beside Microsoft window operating system. Due to the two step authentication process, the time it takes to perform a transaction will be increased.

  1. Distinctiveness: while a biometric trait is expected to vary significantly across individuals, there may be large inter-class similarities in the feature sets used to represent these traits.

1.8 Definition of Terms

To fully understand what the study is all about, important and dispensable terms have been chosen and due definition given to them.

Biometric: Biometric is the science and technology of measuring and statistically analyzing biological data

Simulation: Simulation is the imitation of the operation of real world process or system over time

ATM: Automated Teller Machine is an electronic banking outlet which allows customers of various banking institutions complete basic transaction without the aid of a bank representative, teller or without being physically present at the bank.

PIN: Personal Identification Number (PIN) a secret numeric password shared between a user and the system that can authenticate the user to the system.

Authentication: This is the process of identifying an individual usually based on a username and password with the aim of granting access to a system

Verification: Verification is the process of determining whether an individual is who he/she claims to be

Debit: This refers to the money paid out of a customer's bank account. It is an entry recorded on the left side of a ledger.

Credit: This refers to the money paid into a customers bank account, it is an entry recorded on the right side of a ledger.

Interface: This is a point where two system or subjects meet and interact or communicate it can either be a GUI (Graphical User Interface) or a CLI (Command Line Interface).

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 Literature Review

2.1 Introduction

This chapter focuses on the review of related literature. A literature review includes the current knowledge as well as theoretical and methodological contributions to a particular topic. It documents the state of the art with respect to the topic you are writing. It surveys the literature in the topic selected. In this research work the literature review includes the …

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