A nutritional syndrome is described as an illness triggered on by an imbalance in nutrients, either too much or too little. Consuming excessive amounts or insufficient amounts of foods containing specific nutrients, like vitamins or minerals, can lead to nutritional disorders. Nutritional disorder is the nutrient-related conditions and diseases that cause illness in human. They may include deficiencies or excesses of at least one nutrient in the diet, obesity and eating disorder, and chronic diseases such as hypertension, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and diabetes mellitus.
According to GBD (2013), nutrition plays a pivotal role in life and in medicine. Acute and chronic diseases in most organ systems have pronounced effects on food intake and metabolism with increased catabolism, which lead to nutrition-related conditions associated with increased morbidity and eventually death. At the other end of the spectrum, diet is a major determinant of future health, i.e. the absence of disorders like cardio-vascular disease, diabetes, cancer and cognitive disease (GBD, 2013).
Nutritional disorder can be caused by deficiencies, excesses, imbalances in an individual's consumption of nutrients (WHO, 2017). Nutritional disorder can be under nutrition or over nutrition (Sufiyan et al., 2012), but in this review, nutritional disorder solely refers to the deficiency of nutrition. One of the major health problem faced by children in developing countries today is under nutrition (Goon et al., 2011; Ubesie et al., 2012 and Mengistu et al., 2013). Under nutrition leads to diseases and death in children, especially in the low and middle income countries (WHO, 2018).
In order to handle nutritional challenges during disease, trauma, rehabilitation, and elderly care as well as for the nutritional prevention of disease it is essential to use professional language and standard terminology that is founded on evidence and widely accepted in the professional community. However, this is not always the case.
Under nutrition as nutritional deficiency, refers to any change in the structure or function of body cells and tissues as results of lack of one or more nutrients and or calories in the body. Nutritional deficiencies are of two main types namely:- Primary and Secondary deficiency. The nature and types of deficiency diseases that may occur depends on the type of nutrient the body lacks. The most common deficiency disease is that relating to inadequate protein in diet and general shortage or lack of food thereby resulting in the inability to meet body's energy requirements. Such, diseases is referred to as protein calorie – malnutrition (PCM). This diseases is common in infant and children, especially those below age six where it manifests as either Kwashiorkor (as a result of low intake of protein or deficiency of certain essential amino acid) or marasmus caused by energy and protein shortage (Akinjayeju, 1999).
As a prelude to other parts of this study, this chapter will discuss the background upon which this study was initiated, the statement of problems that led to this study, the Aim and Objectives of the study. Others are Significance of the study, Scope of work, Limitation of the study and Definition of technical terms.
1.2 Statement of Problems
Investigation revealed that nutritional disorder leads to diseases and death in children, especially in the low and middle income countries. The negative impacts of nutritional disorder are seen in families and communities in various aspects such as economically, socially and medically (WHO, 2018). Nutritional disorder causes Nigeria billions in lost revenue through reduced economic productivity, days away from work due to illness and money spent on treating ailments (World Bank, 2014).
1.3 Aim and Objectives of Study
The aim of the study is to assess the Causes and Effects of Nutritional Syndromes in Rural Areas. In achieving this aim, the following specific objectives were laid out as follows:
- To identify some nutritional disorders prevalent in Nigeria in a bid to assess their effects;
- To recognize the causes of such disorders; and
- To outline the possible prevention of such nutritional disorders.
1.5 Research Questions
The study came up with research questions so as to be able to ascertain the above stated objectives. The specific research questions for the study are stated below as follows:
- What is the possible prevention of such nutritional disorders?
- What are the causes of such disorders?
- What are the nutritional disorders prevalent in Nigeria in a bid to assess their effects?
1.6 Significance of Study
The importance of nutritional assessment cannot be over stressed since it serves some useful purposes. When nutritional assessment is properly made, it enables the identification of the nutrient(s) whose supply is adequate or inadequate and makes appropriate decision in relation to the scope of the nutritional supports that is necessary (Akinjayeju, 1999).
This study will be of immense benefit to other researchers who intend to know more on this study and can also be used by non-researchers to build more on their research work. This study contributes to knowledge and could serve as a guide for other study.
1.7 Scope of Study
The scope of the research is focused on the assessment of the Causes and Effects of Nutritional Syndromes in Rural Areas.
1.8 Limitations of the Study
During the course of this study, many things militated against its completion, some of which are:
- Time Constraint: The time frame given to accomplish this project was very short due to school academic calendar and it was carried out under pressure which made the researcher not to implement some necessary features.
- Financial Constraint: Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).