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Design and Implementation of an Expert System on Malaria Diagnosis

Design and Implementation of an Expert System on Malaria Diagnosis

Project / Seminar Material
Reference ID: PS-5373-TM

DEDICATION

This research material titled “Design and Implementation of an Expert System on Malaria Diagnosis” is dedicated to God for his enabling grace, and to all computer enthusiasts who contributed to make life a pleasant experience during my research documentation.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I extend my sincere gratitude to all those who contributed to the completion of this project. Special thanks to my Supervisor (Name of your Supervisor), the Head of Department (Name of your HOD), the Lecturers in the department of Computer Science (CS), Book Authors and Profound Scholars of existing or related project material on “Design and Implementation of an Expert System on Malaria Diagnosis” for their invaluable guidance, support, and expertise throughout the journey.

I am also grateful to your study area (mention any funding organizations, if applicable) for their financial assistance. This research would not have been possible without the encouragement and assistance of some stakeholders (mention any mentors, teachers, or colleagues). Additionally, I would like to acknowledge the understanding and patience of my family and friends during this endeavor. Your unwavering support has been a constant source of motivation. Thank you all for being part of this meaningful endeavor.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PRELIMINARY PAGES


CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION


    CHAPTER TWO

    LITERATURE REVIEW

    • 2.1 Introduction

    CHAPTER THREE

    SYSTEM ANALYSIS AND DESIGN

    • 3.1 Methodology Adopted
    • 3.1.1 Problem Identification Using SSADM
    • 3.2 Analysis of the Existing System
    • 3.2.1 Dataflow of the Existing System
    • 3.2.2 Disadvantages Of The Existing System
    • 3.2.3 Weakness of the existing System
    • 3.3 Feasibility Study
    • 3.3.1 Economic Feasibility
    • 3.3.2 Technical Feasibility
    • 3.3.3 Operational Feasibility
    • 3.4 Analysis of the Proposed System
    • 3.4.1 Data Flow Diagram of the Proposed System
    • 3.4.2 Advantages of the Proposed System
    • 3.4.3 Justification of the Proposed System
    • 3.5 Functional Requirements
    • 3.5.1 Use Case Diagram Of The Admin / User Privileges
    • 3.6 Data Requirements
    • 3.7 High Level Model of the Proposed System

    CHAPTER FOUR

    SYSTEM DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION

    • 4.1 Objectives of the Design
    • 4.2 Cohesion and Decomposition High level Model
    • 4.3 Control Center / Overall Dataflow Diagram
    • 4.3.1 Proposed System Operation Flowchart
    • 4.4 System Specification and Design
    • 4.4.1 Input and Output Specification
    • 4.4.2 Database Specification and Design
    • 4.4.3 Data Dictionary
    • 4.5 Choice and Justification of Programming Language
    • 4.6 Program Documentation
    • 4.7 Implementation Techniques
    • 4.7.1 System Testing
    • 4.8 Programming Module Specification
    • 4.8.1 Installation
    • 4.9 Computer Hardware Minimum Requirement
    • 4.10 Software Requirement
    • 4.11 Personnel / User Training
    • 4.12 File Maintenance Module

    CHAPTER FIVE

    SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

    • 5.1 Introduction
    • 5.2 Summary
    • 5.3 Conclusion
    • 5.4 Recommendation

    REFERENCES

    APPENDIX A - “SOURCE CODE”

    APPENDIX B - “OBJECT PROGRAM”

    ABSTRACT

    An expert system is a software system that attempts to reproduce the performance of one or more human experts, most commonly in a specific problem domain, and is a traditional application and/or subfield of artificial intelligence. The aim of the study is to Design and Implement An Expert System on Malaria Diagnosis. In achieving this aim, the following specific objectives were laid out as follows to design and develop a diagnostic software that will ascertain whether the diseases could be diagnosed based on signs and symptoms, aid clinicians in diagnostic procedures and offer prescription of medication, and enable flexibility in access to information through the World Wide Web or comprehensive knowledge bases.

    The motivation that led to the implementation of the proposed system is that the file and record about patients are not properly kept, Drugs prescription is hardly ever done with the right age of the patient in mind, Error are easily made and hardly detected and information is not well maintained in the existing system.

    The methodology adopted in this study is the structured system analysis and design methodology (SSADM) which is a technical approach for analyzing and designing an application or system by applying object throughout the software development process. The programming language used is HTML, CSS, JAVASCRIPT, PHP, SQL and JQUERY. The reason why web programming languages was used is because, it is platform independent and it is a web based application.

    This system when completed and implemented it will help provide enough information about non-communicable diagnosis. This project will be beneficial to individuals such as doctors, pharmacist and drug prescribers by providing accurate and complete information about each drug or medicine best suit for malaria treatment. The expected result is An Expert System on Malaria Diagnosis that will help to retain the skill of an expert medical doctor in case of any eventuality, and the system will generates an accurate information for medication purpose.


    Design and Implementation of an Expert System on Malaria Diagnosis

    CHAPTER ONE

    1.1 Introduction

    A computer is digital electronic machine capable of accepting input data, processing and producing an output (information). The computer is an important tool that plays a good role in the analysis of any subject that is to be programmed. Before a computer can be successfully programmed and utilized, it must be studied properly. Expert system play an indomitable role in various disciplines and the assistance it renders to man cannot be overemphasized. The development of experts system that capture skills and expertise of a human expert has not been easy and date back to the Second World War, where experts of computer tried relentlessly to develop technique or systems that would allow act more intelligently than human. But recently, experts system have proven their value by aiding for example, medical professionals in diagnosing diseases and scheduling task as well mechanics in trouble shooting locomotive problems and configuring complex computer hardware.

    As a prelude to other parts of this study, this chapter will discuss the background upon which this study was initiated, the statement of problems that led to this study, the Aim and Objectives of the study. Others are Significance of the study, Scope of work, Limitations of the Study and Definition of technical terms.


    1.2 Background of Study

    An expert system is a software system that attempts to reproduce the performance of one or more human experts, most commonly in a specific problem domain, and is a traditional application and/or subfield of artificial intelligence. A wide variety of methods can be used to simulate the performance of the expert however common to most or all are the creation of a so-called “knowledgebase” which uses some knowledge representation formalism to capture the subject matter experts (SME) knowledge and a process of gathering that knowledge from the SME and codifying it according to the formalism, which is called knowledge engineering. Expert systems may or may not have learning components but a third common element is that once the system is developed it is proven by being placed in the same real world problem solving situation as the human SME, typically as an aid to human workers or a supplement to some information system.

    As a premiere application of computing and artificial intelligence, the topic of expert systems has many points of contact with general systems theory, operations research, business process reengineering and various topics in applied mathematics and management science.

    Two illustrations of actual expert systems can give an idea of how they work. In one real world case at a chemical refinery a senior employee was about to retire and the company was concerned that the loss of his expertise in managing a fractionating tower would severely impact operations of the plant. A knowledge engineer was assigned to produce an expert system reproducing his expertise saving the company the loss of the valued knowledge asset. Similarly a system called Mycin was developed from the expertise of best diagnosticians of bacterial infections whose performance was found to be as good as or better than the average clinician. An early commercial success and illustration of another typical application (a task generally considered overly complex for a human) was an expert system fielded by DEC in the 1980s to quality check the configurations of their computers prior to delivery. The eighties were the time of greatest popularity of expert systems and interest lagged after the onset of the AI Winter. In like manner, developing one of such system to represent the repository of the knowledge of a medical doctor is as essential as any other expert system. To this end, this project, Expert System on the Diagnosis of non communicable diseases is a necessity.


    1.3 Statement of Problem

    Investigation by this study reveals the following challenges:

    1. File and record about patients are not properly kept.
    2. Drugs prescription is hardly ever done with the right age of the patient in mind.
    3. Error are easily made and hardly detected.
    4. Information is not well maintained.

    Health care facility should be accessible by all at all times. But some of the people that should access these facilities are far removed from these facilities. More so, in the few available facilities, qualified medical personnel are always key issues that need urgent redress.

    In view of the foregoing, it would be of great necessity to provide a computerized system that will provide a complementary medical service, such as medical disease diagnosis in places where accessibility is a problem as well as health care facilities where qualified experts are lacking, hence this topic, Expert System on Malaria fever Diagnosis.


    1.4 Aim and Objectives of the Study

    The aim of the study is to Design and Implement an Expert System on Malaria Diagnosis. In achieving this aim, the following specific objectives were laid out as follows to design and develop an application software that will:

    1. Ascertain whether the diseases could be diagnosed based on signs and symptoms;
    2. Examine a patient based on simple clinical signs, and to improve family and community health;
    3. Appraise the contributions of an expert system in medicine;
    4. Create flexible and relatively easily maintained systems; and
    5. Inform the medical practitioner that they can enjoy prolific alliance with computer systems.

    1.5 Significance of Study

    The significance of expert systems in the diagnosis of malaria are too numerous to mention but a few has been listed out below;

    1. It will help to retain the skill of an expert medical doctor in case of any eventuality;
    2. It can support academic development;
    3. It can be useful in many hospitals, both private and government, cases where the expert is not on seat;
    4. Human expert development is a continuous exercise but an expert system is built only once and updated continuously with new technologies.

    This study will be of immense benefit to other researchers who intend to know more on this study and can also be used by non-researchers to build more on their research work. This study contributes to knowledge and could serve as a guide for other study.


    1.6 Scope of Study

    The scope of this study focuses on the Design and Implementation of an Expert System on Malaria Diagnosis.


    1.7 Limitations of the Study

    During the course of this study, many things militated against its completion, some of which are:

    1. Time Constraint: The time frame given to accomplish this project was very short due to school academic calendar and it was carried out under pressure which made the researcher not to implement some necessary features.
    2. Research material: availability of research material is a major setback to the scope of the study.
    3. Frequent power failure: This made the researcher append more money on fuel to ensure sustainable power.
    4. Financial Constraint: Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet).

    1.8 Definition of Terms

    Malaria: An infectious disease caused by a parasite that is transmitted by the bite of infected mosquitoes. Common in tropical countries, the disease is characterized by recurring chills and fever.

    Diagnose: The identifying of an illness or disorder in a patient through physical examination, medical tests, or other procedures

    Medical: Relating to medicine, physical examination to determine health: a physical examination by a doctor to check

    Communicable: A communicable disease that can be passed from one person

    Symptoms: Signs of an ill health

    Knowledge-based: Information system that store wealth of one’s knowledge

    Expert: Somebody with a great deal of knowledge, skill, training, or experience in a particular field or activity

    CHAPTER TWO

    2.0 Literature Review

    2.1 Introduction

    This chapter focuses on the review of related literature. A literature review includes the current knowledge as well as theoretical and methodological contributions to a particular topic. It documents the state of the art with respect to the topic you are writing. It surveys the literature in the topic selected. In this research work the literature review includes the …

    Summary Headlines for Design and Implementation of an Expert System on Malaria Diagnosis



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