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Design and Implementation of Aircraft Flight Weather Atmosphere Forecasting System

Design and Implementation of Aircraft Flight Weather Atmosphere Forecasting System

Project / Seminar Material
Reference ID: PS-889-TM

DEDICATION

This research material titled “Design and Implementation of Aircraft Flight Weather Atmosphere Forecasting System” is dedicated to God for his enabling grace, and to all computer enthusiasts who contributed to make life a pleasant experience during my research documentation.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I extend my sincere gratitude to all those who contributed to the completion of this project. Special thanks to my Supervisor (Name of your Supervisor), the Head of Department (Name of your HOD), the Lecturers in the department of Computer Science (CS), Book Authors and Profound Scholars of existing or related project material on “Design and Implementation of Aircraft Flight Weather Atmosphere Forecasting System” for their invaluable guidance, support, and expertise throughout the journey.

I am also grateful to your study area (mention any funding organizations, if applicable) for their financial assistance. This research would not have been possible without the encouragement and assistance of some stakeholders (mention any mentors, teachers, or colleagues). Additionally, I would like to acknowledge the understanding and patience of my family and friends during this endeavor. Your unwavering support has been a constant source of motivation. Thank you all for being part of this meaningful endeavor.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PRELIMINARY PAGES


CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION


    CHAPTER TWO

    LITERATURE REVIEW

    • 2.1 Introduction

    CHAPTER THREE

    SYSTEM ANALYSIS AND DESIGN

    • 3.1 Methodology Adopted
    • 3.1.1 Problem Identification Using SSADM
    • 3.2 Analysis of the Existing System
    • 3.2.1 Dataflow of the Existing System
    • 3.2.2 Disadvantages Of The Existing System
    • 3.2.3 Weakness of the existing System
    • 3.3 Feasibility Study
    • 3.3.1 Economic Feasibility
    • 3.3.2 Technical Feasibility
    • 3.3.3 Operational Feasibility
    • 3.4 Analysis of the Proposed System
    • 3.4.1 Data Flow Diagram of the Proposed System
    • 3.4.2 Advantages of the Proposed System
    • 3.4.3 Justification of the Proposed System
    • 3.5 Functional Requirements
    • 3.5.1 Use Case Diagram Of The Admin / User Privileges
    • 3.6 Data Requirements
    • 3.7 High Level Model of the Proposed System

    CHAPTER FOUR

    SYSTEM DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION

    • 4.1 Objectives of the Design
    • 4.2 Cohesion and Decomposition High level Model
    • 4.3 Control Center / Overall Dataflow Diagram
    • 4.3.1 Proposed System Operation Flowchart
    • 4.4 System Specification and Design
    • 4.4.1 Input and Output Specification
    • 4.4.2 Database Specification and Design
    • 4.4.3 Data Dictionary
    • 4.5 Choice and Justification of Programming Language
    • 4.6 Program Documentation
    • 4.7 Implementation Techniques
    • 4.7.1 System Testing
    • 4.8 Programming Module Specification
    • 4.8.1 Installation
    • 4.9 Computer Hardware Minimum Requirement
    • 4.10 Software Requirement
    • 4.11 Personnel / User Training
    • 4.12 File Maintenance Module

    CHAPTER FIVE

    SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

    • 5.1 Introduction
    • 5.2 Summary
    • 5.3 Conclusion
    • 5.4 Recommendation

    REFERENCES

    APPENDIX A - “SOURCE CODE”

    APPENDIX B - “OBJECT PROGRAM”

    ABSTRACT

    Weather forecasting is the application of current technology and science to predict the state of the atmosphere for a future time and a given location. The aim of the study is to design and implement an Aircraft Flight Weather Atmosphere Forecasting System. In achieving this aim, the following specific objectives were laid out to develop a workable weather forecasting system, present the concept and techniques of weather forecasting system, showcase the importance and limitation of weather forecasting system, design a system that will enable Aviation industry to make decision on flight control based on information given, study and use advance programming language as logical tool for forecasting weather conditions, and make sure of effective analysis, design implementation, and also provide solution to state problems in Aviation weather forecast.

    The methodology adopted in this study is the object oriented analysis and design methodology (OOADM) which is a technical approach for analyzing and designing an application or system by applying object throughout the software development process. The programming language used is HTML, CSS, JAVASCRIPT, PHP, SQL and JQUERY. The reason why web programming languages was used is because, it is platform independent and it is a web based application. The project will bring to light the relevance of weather forecasting and it will expose the vital activities involved in weather forecasting. It will provide a solution to the problem of being caught unaware by unfavorable weather conditions. The expected result is an Weather Forecasting Application Software that will be used in Aviation Industry, to predict and give optimum information about the current weather condition, and determines if it's safe for Air Flight.


    Design and Implementation of Aircraft Flight Weather Atmosphere Forecasting System

    CHAPTER ONE

    1.1 Introduction

    Weather forecasting is the application of current technology and science to predict the state of the atmosphere for a future time and a given location. Weather forecasts are critical to the commercial and private transportation sector, including airline, shipping and trucking industries, nationally and internationally. Airlines, for example rely on short term forecasts to best position their aircraft and adjust flight routes. Every day, millions of weather – based economic decisions are made in transportation, agriculture, power, construction, and other sectors of the economy. Weather conditions affect the entire economy in many ways both directly and indirectly, Better weather forests bring economic opportunities to almost every sector of the economy.

    As a prelude to other parts of this study, this chapter will discuss the background upon which this study was initiated, the statement of problems that led to this study, the Aim and Objectives of the study. Others are Significance of the study, Scope of work, Limitation of the study and Definition of technical terms.


    1.2 Background of Study

    The art of weather forecasting began with early civilizations using reoccurring astronomical and metrological events to help them monitor seasonal changes in the weather (MISTIC House, 2008) Around 650 BC the Babylonians tried to predict short term weather changes based on the appearance of clouds and optical phenomena such as haloes. By 300B.C Chinese astronomers had developed a calendar that divided the year into 24 festivals, each festival associated with a different type of weather.

    Around 340 B.C the Greek Philosopher Aristotle wrote Metrological, a philosophical treatise that included theories about the formation of rain, clouds, hail, wind, thunder, lightening, and hurricanes. In addition, topics such s astronomy, geography and chemistry were also addressed. Aristotle made some remarkably acute observations concerning the weather, along with some significant errors. And his four–volume text was considered by many to be the authority of weather theory for almost 200 years. Although many of Aristotle’s claims were erroneous, it was not until about 17th century that many of his ideas were overthrown. Throughout the centuries, attempts have been made to produce forecasts based on weather lore and personal observations.

    However, by the end of the Renaissance, it had become increasingly evident that the speculations of the natural philosophers were inadequate and that greater knowledge of the necessary to further our understanding of the atmosphere (Wilson, 2007). In order to do these instruments were needed to measure the properties. The first known design in western civilization for a hygrometer an instrument to measure the humidity of air was described by Nicholas Cusa (C.1401 – 1464, German) in the mid fifteenth century. Galileo Galilsi (1564 – 1642, Italian) invented an early thermometer in 1592 or shortly thereafter, and Evangelista Torricelli (1608 – 1647, Italian invented the barometer for measuring atmospheric pressure in 1643.

    While these meteorological instruments were being refined during the seventeenth through nineteenth centuries, other related observational theoretical and the technological developments also contributed to our knowledge of the atmosphere, and individuals at scattered locations began to make and record atmospheric measurements. The invention of the telegraph and the emergence of telegraph networks in the mid nineteenth century allowed the routine transmission of weather observations to and from observers and compilers. Using these data, crude weather maps were drawn and surface wind patterns and storm systems could be identified and studied. Weather observing stations began appearing all across the globe, eventually spawning the birth of synoptic weather forecasting, based on the compilation and analysis many observations taken simultaneously over a wide area, in the 1860s.

    With the formation of regional and global metrological observation networks in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, more data were becoming available for observation based weather forecasting. A great stride in monitoring weather at high at altitudes was made in the 1920s with the invention of the radiosonde. Small light weight boxes equipped with weather instruments and a radio transmitter, radiosondes are carried high into the atmosphere by a hydrogen or helium – filled balloon that ascends to an altitude of about 30 kilometers before bursting (Gaffen, 2008). During the ascent, these instruments transmit temperature moisture, and pressure data (Called soundings) back to ground station. Three, the data are processed and made available for constructing weather maps or insertion into computer models for weather prediction. Today, radiosondes are launched every twelve (12) hours from hundreds of ground stations all over the world.


    1.3 Statement of Problem

    The current method of weather forecasting in the Aviation industry impeded by the following problems:

    1. Inaccuracy issue of weather forecast
    2. Delay from the head quarters (meteorological services Headquarters in Lagos) in forecasting weather conditions.
    3. The use of manual methods in weather forecast and also in storing or keeping recordings of previous measurements of weather elements and its analysis

    Also, the condition of the earth’s climate is constantly changing, making it difficult to know when a disaster is around the corner. Many lives and properties has been lost as a result of natural disasters such as floods, cyclone, tonardoes, earthquake, etc. airlines in particular are seeking for more effective systems to enable them have a safe flight and in many cases they come against unfavourable weather conditions. It is in view of these problems that this research study is carried out to develop an Aircraft Flight Weather Atmosphere Forecasting System.


    1.4 Aim and Objectives of the Study

    The aim of the study is to design and implement an Aircraft Flight Weather Atmosphere Forecasting System. In achieving this aim, the following specific objectives were laid out as follows:

    1. To develop a workable weather forecasting system
    2. To present the concept and techniques of weather forecasting system
    3. To showcase the importance and limitation of weather forecasting system
    4. To design a system that will enable Aviation industry to make decision on flight control based on information given.
    5. To study and use advance programming language as logical tool for forecasting weather conditions.
    6. To make sure of effective analysis, design implementation, and also provide solution to state problems in Aviation weather forecast.

    1.5 Significance of Study

    The significance of the study is that it will bring to light the relevance of weather forecasting and it will expose the vital activities involved in weather forecasting. It will provide a solution to the problem of being caught unaware by unfavorable weather conditions. The study will also serve as a reference material to all those who are seeking for information pertaining the subject.

    This study will be of immense benefit to researchers who intend to know more on this study and can also be used by non-researchers to build more on their research work. This study contributes to knowledge and could serve as a guide for other study.


    1.6 Scope of the Study

    This scope of this research is focused on the design and implementation of an Aircraft Flight Weather Atmosphere Forecasting System, using Sam Mbakwe Airport, Owerri - Imo State as a case study.


    1.7 Limitations of the Study

    During the course of this study, many things militated against its completion, some of which are:

    1. Time Constraint: The time frame given to accomplish this project was very short due to school academic calendar and it was carried out under pressure which made the researcher not to implement some necessary features.
    2. Establishment Policies: Establishment policies posed a serious limitation as most staffs are not ready to release information needed for this project work. There were lots of information needed from the staffs of this institution to enhance the study which took them time to release or they did not release at all for security purposes, hence the scope was reduced.
    3. Research material: availability of research material is a major setback to the scope of the study.
    4. Frequent power failure: This made the researcher append more money on fuel to ensure sustainable power.
    5. Financial Constraint: Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet).

    1.8 Definition of Terms

    Weather

    The state of the atmosphere with regard to temperature, cloudiness, rainfall, wind, and other meteorological conditions

    Forecast

    To predict or work out something that is likely to happen such as the weather conditions for the days ahead

    Atmosphere

    The mixture of gases that surrounds an astronomical object such as the Earth

    Temperature

    The heat of something measured on a scale such as the Fahrenheit or Celsius scale

    Troposphere

    The lowest and most dense layer of the atmosphere, extending 10 to 20 km/6 to 12 mi, in which temperature decreases with rising altitude and most weather occurs

    Stratosphere

    The region of the Earth’s atmosphere between the troposphere and mesosphere, from 10 km/6 mi to 50 km/30 mi above the Earth’s surface. It has no clouds and is marked by gradual temperature increase.

    CHAPTER TWO

    2.0 Literature Review

    2.1 Introduction

    This chapter focuses on the review of related literature. A literature review includes the current knowledge as well as theoretical and methodological contributions to a particular topic. It documents the state of the art with respect to the topic you are writing. It surveys the literature in the topic selected. In this research work the literature review includes the …

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