The level of fraud in the present day Nigeria has assumed an epidemic dimension. It has eaten deep into every aspect of our life even to the extent that a three years old child talks about Yahoo mail or 419, newly discovered sobriquet for advanced free fraud that is hunting our banking industry. Nigeria with al its natural and human resources talkers on the brick of destruction because of fraud. Much of what we do is cutting leaves instead of dealing with the root problem.
Generally, fraud takes its root from the human heart. It is an axion that the heart of man is deceitful above all things and is desperately wicked. The only remedy to the situation will be God's intervention. Notwithstanding the varied meanings attached to the concept of financial fraud, so many authors addressed the subject with varying definitions.
1.1 Background Of The Study
The study entails on the rapid increase of the cases of fraud in the Nigerian financial institutions. Various procedure for preventions of ugly act exist but it seems like the most powerful remedy is the intervention of God. Different authors and researchers emerge with their definition on the concept of financial fraud. The following are most of the definitions.
What is fraud? According to Oxford Advance Learner's Dictionary, fraud is defined as the crime of cheating in order to get money or good illegally.
According to the chartered institute of public finance and accounting, United State, fraud is defined as those intentional distortions of financial statements or other records which are carried out to conceal the misappropriation of assets or other wise for gain (Ando, 1997:50).
According to Adeniyi (2001), fraud refers to intentional act by one or more individuals among management employees, or third parties which resulted in a mis-representation of financial statement.
According to Okorie, fraud is a type of irregularity. The word fraud is used to refer to irregularities involving the use of criminal deception to obtain unjust or illegal advantage, however, having closely studied these approaches from definition of fraud especially from the banking perspective one may correctly see banking fraud as a deliberate act by an individual or group inside or outside the Nigerian banking dispose the bank depositors or share holders of their funds. Despite several definitions of frauds, the authors believe that the ones so far given are nearly appropriate inspiring and of advantages for the purpose in which the researcher intends to achieve.
The position of banking system in our economy cannot be over emphasized. They act as the “Conduct pipe” through which all the financial transaction passes. However, frau has brought a b sensor bottleneck to the lope functioning of the roles of the banking system to the Nigerian economy people are beginning to get worried and sooner than later may loose confidence in our banking sector due to the mainly increasing incidence of fraud in our today's bank properties should be on trust not fraud.
1.2 Statement Of The Problem
The frequent causes of financial fraud in many financial Institutions in our country are now taken as the utter most concern to financial experts and macro economist. To some banking experts the issue of fraud is an internal vice on the Nigerian banking system. They argue on this because a good number of fraud occur among our banks without the knowledge of outside even where the public is aware, it does not affect the rate at which customers withdraw or deposite money.
These experts are inclined to believe this because the nation is under banked the populace are at no option but to sue the available banks especially the foremost and well established bank like UBA Plc, even if there are glaring inefficiencies in the operations in competence and laziness among most bank staffs giving birth to fraud.
Fraud has paralyzed the roof, the foundation and crushability of our banking system. Just pick up any national daily newspaper of from the police record and you will be alarmed at the extent and magnitude of bank fraud in Nigerian banking system many banks have gone on distress. Therefore, the researcher is aiming at finding or training fraud in the Nigerian banking system which has to offer to these deficiencies aforementioned with special reference with UBA Okpara Avenue, Enugu.
1.3 Objectives Of The Study
The overall objective of this work is towards ascertaining the effects of financial fraud, have had on Nigeria banking system or banking industry since its inception is in the Nigeria industry. Furthermore, the subsidiary objectives include:
- To find out the causes of fraud in our financial institution.
- To identify the problems faced as a result of the introduction of financial fraud
- To recommend solutions that may help in the eradication of financial fraud in our banking system.
1.4 Research Question
The following research question have guide the study:
- What are the causes of financial fraud, can this be checked and controlled?
- Has financial fraud in the banking industry help to impede problems towards their failure?
- What measure does the bank adopt to check financial fraud?
1.5 Significant Of The Study
The significance of the study is divided into two namely:
- Academic significance
- Practical significance
These will readers and those who any wish to make reference on this study while undertaking similar research work, for potential auditors and accountants, it is a material of reading they should be able to understood what is fraud, what is audit, how and why auditing and internal control system is an ingestible ambent of business system.
This project will equally be of immense help to other establishment and organization both in public and private sector. The need to establish a visible internal audit unit as a means of internal control should not be over- emphasized.
It is of help tat the management of UBA, Okpara Avenue, Enugu in particular should use the finding of this research to equip the audit (ie audit department and inspection) investor, promotes and shareholders would find this very useful. This will serve as an eye opener to them on what it takes to invest in banks.
However, this work will be of immense help to financial institution in Nigeria in particular and to al that may have need for assistance in detection of these opportunities in general.
1.6 Scope Of The Study
This research work is to examine fraud and how it can be prevented in Nigeria financial institutions with a particular reference, the scope of the study was defined to embody all relevant aspects of fraud in banking industry.
The scope of the study also focused on areas relating to the staffs strength, bank size of depositors, size of loans and allowance, years of banking experience of fraudsters the means of fraud prevention and detection and punishment to be imposed on fraudsters.
1.7 Limitation Of The Study
In a study of the nature, one would like to accumulate data from many areas but owing to the length of time allowed for this research, such a wide range sample study was almost externally difficult. There are a lots of factors that constituted limiting factors to this project work, just to mention few which are:
1. Financial constraints:
As a student, there was no enough borrowing of more relevant literature will be of help in writing this research work or project.
The non-challant attitude of some of the staff members regarding giving useful information hinders the progress of the research due to fear of being giving out officials secrets.
3. Unreleased information:
Some information were being coded by the organization which was not released to the researcher.
4. Death information:
There are no comprehensive write up or books on compulsory acquisition and compensations, there are few books and journals in searching for this topic and hence review of literature was difficult.
5. Time factor:
The short limited time given for the compilation of this project deprived it of more technical touches.
However, effort has been made to ensure that this situation does not hinder the completion and equality of this research work.
1.8 Definition Of Terms
Misappropriation Of Assets:
This is an irregularity involving acquisition application of the resource of an enterprise for one's personal benefit without disclosure to the enterprise.
This is the intentional distortion of the financial statement to secure a particular advantage such as the misappropriation of assets, avoidance or evasion of tax and omission of disclosures.
A fraud auditor is an expert who by this specific scientific and technical training, exposure and experience knows more and more about fraud.
The independent examination and expression, opinion on the financial statement of an enterprise by an appointed auditor, in pursuance of that appointment and in compliance with any relevant statutory obligation.
fraud auditing may be defined as the creation of an environment that encourages the detection of prevention of fraud in government, public, commercial and even private establishment.
This is a management tool with which is used to appraise the activities of the management by themselves through appointed staff of the organization.
This is the independent appraisal of the activities within an organization for the review of accounting and other operations as the basis for service to management.
Internal Control System:
This is the management control which functions by measuring and evaluating the effectiveness of other controls ( in all areas of the organization)
This refers to the intentional distortion of financial statement for whatever purpose and misappropriation of assets.
This is the examination of certain statement covering the transactions over a period and the financial position of an organization on a certain date in order that the auditor may issue a report on them.
The word error is used to refers to unintentional mistake in financial statement whether of mathematical or clerical nature or whether due to over sight misinterpretation of the relevant facts.