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Information and Communication Technology ICT Deployment in Architectural Firms in Nigeria

Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Deployment in Architectural Firms in Nigeria

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Reference ID: PS-232-TM

DEDICATION

This research material titled “Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Deployment in Architectural Firms in Nigeria” is dedicated to God for his enabling grace, and to all computer enthusiasts who contributed to make life a pleasant experience during my research documentation.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I extend my sincere gratitude to all those who contributed to the completion of this project. Special thanks to my Supervisor (Name of your Supervisor), the Head of Department (Name of your HOD), the Lecturers in the department of Architecture, Book Authors and Profound Scholars of existing or related project material on “Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Deployment in Architectural Firms in Nigeria” for their invaluable guidance, support, and expertise throughout the journey.

I am also grateful to your study area (mention any funding organizations, if applicable) for their financial assistance. This research would not have been possible without the encouragement and assistance of some stakeholders (mention any mentors, teachers, or colleagues). Additionally, I would like to acknowledge the understanding and patience of my family and friends during this endeavor. Your unwavering support has been a constant source of motivation. Thank you all for being part of this meaningful endeavor.


Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Deployment in Architectural Firms in Nigeria

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PRELIMINARY PAGES


CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • 1.1 Introduction
  • 1.2 Background of Study
  • 1.3 Statement of Problems
  • 1.4 Aim and Objectives of Study
  • 1.5 Research Questions
  • 1.6 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.7 Significance of Study
  • 1.8 Scope of Study
  • 1.9 Limitations of the Study
  • 1.10 Definition of Terms

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Conceptual Review of Architectural Firm
  • 2.2.1 Concept of Information and Communication Technology
  • 2.3 Historical Review of Information and Communication
  • 2.4 The Impact of ICT on Architectural Firms
  • 2.5 Negative Effect of ICT on Architectural Firms
  • 2.6 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.7 Empirical Review of Literature

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Research Design
  • 3.3 Population of Study
  • 3.4 Sampling and Sampling Technique
  • 3.5 Validation of Research Instrument
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Questionnaire
  • 3.8.1 Interview
  • 3.8.2 Key Informants Interview
  • 3.8.3 Observation
  • 3.9 Ethical Consideration
  • 3.10 Statistical Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR

DATA ANALYSIS, RESULT AND DISCUSSION

  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Presentation and Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Analysis of Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypothesis 1
  • 4.5 Test of Hypothesis 2
  • 4.6 Discussion of Findings

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Summary of Findings
  • 5.3 Conclusion
  • 5.4 Recommendation

REFERENCES

APPENDIX A - “QUESTIONNAIRE”

ABSTRACT

Architectural ICT refers to all communication technologies that enable users to access, retrieve, store, transmit, and manipulate architectural information in a digital form. The study was carried out to investigate Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Deployment in Architectural Firms in Nigeria. In achieving this aim, the following specific objectives were laid out to identify the factors impacting Information and Communication Technology on Architectural Firms and identify the availability and proficiency levels of the CAD/BIM personnel in the use of available design technologies in architectural firms. Investigation revealed that the majority of construction information exchange is still based on traditional means of communication such as face-to-face meetings (site meetings) and the exchange of paper documents. This slow pace of adapting to change is one of the reasons while the architectural industry has for many years suffered from the difficult-to-access, out-of-date and incomplete information. The research design used in this report is descriptive design, utilizing questionnaire method to obtain information from the respondents for this project. Primary data were collected from the primary source which questionnaire was used as an instrument of data collection while secondary data were sources from textbooks, journals, newspapers and the internet were employed. The data were presented on a frequency distribution table and analyzed using simple percentage, while hypothesis was tested using chi-square test. The study will serve as a template for confronting various problems in government and learn how to effectively and efficiently entrench ICT to aid and maximize effective and efficient performance. Based on the findings, it is recommended that Architectural Firms in Nigeria should invest in ICT innovations in order to build capacity to design specialized products to serve niche organizations.


Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Deployment in Architectural Firms in Nigeria

CHAPTER ONE

1.1 Introduction

Architectural practice has been in existence in Nigeria for more than fifty years and the earliest introduction of computers by firms for operations began in the early 1980s. Information and communication technology (ICT) usage is inevitable in all fields of endeavours and for professionals in the present era. The study of ICT usage and deployment therefore becomes imperative. ICT is a broader term for Information and Communication Technology, which refers to all communication technologies, including the internet, wireless networks, cell phones, computers, software, middleware, video-conferencing, social networking, and other media applications and services enabling users to access, retrieve, store, transmit, and manipulate information in a digital form (FAO, 2021).

As a prelude to other parts of this study, this chapter will discuss the background upon which this study was initiated, the statement of problems that led to this study, the Aim and Objectives of the study. Others are Significance of the study, Scope of work, Research hypothesis and questions, Limitations of the Study and Definition of technical terms.


1.2 Background of Study

Today, ICT is an essential ingredient in research, technology, education and other societal endeavours. It includes the automated capturing of data and processing of information; large-scale networking; high-end computing; high-end computation and infrastructure; high-confidence software and systems; human-computer interaction and information management; as well as theoretical studies of the nature of information and the limits of computation. Advances in supercomputers, simulations and networks are creating a new window into the natural world, making high-end computational experimentation an essential tool for path breaking scientific discoveries. ICT is becoming a powerful force in the world. In this millennium, a radically different world will be seen, where information, and access to it, will be one of the most important economic and social indicators (Johnston, 2015). Due to its enormous and profound socioeconomic benefits, ICT has, seemingly in a few short years, become critical to a nation's well-being and prosperity. ICT is also changing the way people live, work, learn and communicate with each other.

Competitive pressures force ICT adoption by many businesses and industries. As a result, industries have experienced significant productivity improvements as ICT has provided them with great advantages in speed of operation, consistency of data generation, accessibility and exchange of information. Construction is a traditional industry and conservative to adopt new technology unless the contribution of this technology is obvious (Li & Wang 2013), forced by clients or by regulations. The Architectural Engineering and Construction industry (AEC) has embraced ICT in order to benefit from these developments to gain or maintain a competitive advantage. Introduction of ICT in all aspects of the design and construction of facilities has been going for a few decades now.

The architect is defined in the British Standard Institution Glossary (2013) as the person who designs buildings and super intends the execution of building works. This reflects a simplistic view of the role of the architect. However, the role expands to involve not only technical activities but other areas of competency including organizational politics, business strategy, consulting and leadership, and technology. The architects have been chosen in particular as they play a key role in the design process and have a wide responsibility of the design and building. The architects have traditionally specialized on several domain areas of knowledge. Such areas have been urban planning, project planning, office planning, public buildings, housing and during the recent years also information technology related issues, such as integrated design data management, 3Dvisualization and building information modeling (Penttila, 2016).

Architecture is concerned with the designing of buildings and spaces. It is one of the professions that are very well founded in the construction industry in the UK as an example, since the early 19th century (Huru, 2012). Architecture has been described as the ‘mother profession' and is best known in the family of design professions, it is worth of studying as it is probably the oldest established design profession and performs as a model for design in other professions (Schön, 2013). The architect was traditionally the master builder and the presence of architects, as has been documented, goes back to the third millennium before Christ; graphic conventions of architectural practice appeared even earlier (Kostof, 2017). The architect was in charge of the project from the early days of conception to the very last day of execution and was accountable in case of failure. The role of the architect turned out to be directed on the general concept of structures and managing the relationship between the client and contractor, who builds the building (Lewis, 2014). Furthermore, the boundaries of architecture are constantly shifting and there are many variations among architectural practices (Schön, 2013).

The architectural and designing working methods have changed drastically during the last few decades caused by CAD, design integration, project document management, collaborative team-work through the web and email (Kalay 2014). Design communication is currently considered to be an inevitable skill sector of a modern architect. The changes within the architectural profession and even more so in the construction process have recently been particularly economical. According to Penttila (2016), design guidelines, formal contracts and assignments with the clients are currently rather demanding in contemporary practice. The changes in architectural profession have concerned very profoundly the tools which architects use and also the working methods. CAD-systems have become the main tool for the architects during the 1990's and working without CAD is hardly possible any more. Product data modelling or Building Information Modelling (BIM) has also been developed to be an integrated future framework for the Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) field information management.

The architectural profession revolves round building design, project management, construction and consultancy. In order to manage a construction project properly, accurate and up-to-date information is required at all times so that no delays and failures can be encountered. Hence, all project participants must be up to speed with the changes that are happening within the project (Aigbavboa et al, 2013). According to Lang et al., (2015) traditional boundaries between different professions have been crossed as new needs and technologies emerged. In addition, professional identities and established work procedures are being challenged as a result of introducing innovative information and communication technologies (Eriksson-Zetterquist et al., 2015).

Communication is the activity of conveying information through the exchange of ideas, feelings, intentions, attitudes, expectations, perceptions or commands. Communication in architectural practice helps the architect to better understand the client and other professionals in the building industry as well as to build trust; respect and create environments where creative ideas, problem solving, affection and caring can flourish. The professional service of the architects requires effective communication from the inception (brief) to the completion (handing over) of the structure. Also, there is need for effective communication between the client and the architect throughout the construction process. For communication to be effective, it requires a sender, a medium and a recipient. Due to the hierarchal and fragmented nature of construction works, a close coordination among a large number of specialized but interdependent organizations and individuals to achieve the cost, time and quality of goals of a construction project is required (Toole, 2013).

Therefore, in Nigeria where the research was carried out, the activities that was conducted is to know the Effect of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Deployment in Architectural Firms.


1.3 Statement of Problems

Investigation revealed that the majority of construction information exchange in Nigeria are still based on traditional means of communication such as face-to-face meetings (site meetings) and the exchange of paper documents. This slow pace of adapting to change is one of the reasons while the architectural industry has for many years suffered from the difficult-to-access, out-of-date and incomplete information (Shoesmith, 2015).

The evaluation of the impact of ICT deployment in architectural firms is a research area that has received limited attention in the construction literature in general and in the architectural literature in particular. Most of the research on the impact of ICT has focused on the evaluation of ICT from a cost-benefit perspective using several methods and techniques proposed specifically to evaluate the return of the investment on ICT. Thus, the ultimate objective of this research project is to assess the impact of ICT deployment in architectural firms as well as on architectural design process and architectural practices in Nigeria.


1.4 Aim and Objectives of Study

The aim of the study is to investigate Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Deployment in Architectural Firms in Nigeria. In achieving this aim, the following specific objectives were laid out as follows:

  1. To identify the factors impacting Information and Communication Technology on Architectural Firms;
  2. To examine the relationship between ICT and architectural firms in Nigeria;
  3. To identify the different ICT tools used in architectural firms in Nigeria; and
  4. To identify the availability and proficiency levels of the CAD/BIM personnel in the use of available design technologies in architectural firms.

1.5 Research Questions

The study came up with research questions so as to be able to ascertain the above stated objectives. The specific research questions for the study are stated below as follows:

  • What are the factors impacting Information and Communication Technology on Architectural Firms?
  • What is the relationship between ICT and architectural firms in Nigeria?
  • What are the different ICT tools used in architectural firms in Nigeria?
  • How are the availability and proficiency levels of the CAD/BIM personnel in the use of available design technologies in architectural firms?

1.6 Research Hypothesis

In order to pursue the objective of this study, the following generalized statements have been designed to guide and aids in obtaining the result for the experiment to be conducted. For this work, the null hypothesis will be represented with H0 while the alternative hypothesis will be represented with hypothesis H1.

Hypothesis One

  • H0: There is no significant relationship between ICT and architectural firms in Nigeria.
  • H1: There is a significant relationship between ICT and architectural firms in Nigeria.

Hypothesis Two

  • H0: The availability and proficiency level of the CAD/BIM personnel in the use of available design technologies is low in architectural firms in Nigeria.
  • H1: The availability and proficiency level of the CAD/BIM personnel in the use of available design technologies is high in architectural firms in Nigeria.

1.7 Significance of Study

The study will serve as a template for confronting various problems in government and learn how to effectively and efficiently entrench ICT to aid and maximize effective and efficient performance. It is pertinent to note that the study will also be useful for private organizations who may want to study the challenges and how it can be confronted in order to improve organizational performance.

This study will be a template for those who may be interested in the subject of discourse as a basis for knowledge. It will also serve as a basis for further academic research on the topic being investigated.


1.8 Scope of Study

The scope of the research focuses on the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Deployment in Architectural Firms in Nigeria.

The study will also focus on the effect of ICT on architectural design process and architectural practices in Nigeria. The study will be carried out in selected architectural firms in Nigeria.


1.9 Limitations of the Study

During the course of this study, many things militated against its completion, some of which are:

  1. Time Constraint: The time frame given to accomplish this project was very short due to school academic calendar and it was carried out under pressure which made the researcher not to implement some necessary features.
  2. Research material: availability of research material is a major setback to the scope of the study.
  3. Frequent power failure: This made the researcher append more money on fuel to ensure sustainable power.
  4. Financial Constraint: Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

1.10 Definition of Terms

Owing to the multiplicity of meanings of words in certain cases, the research needed to give certain words used in the study their contextual meanings.

Architecture: Architecture is both the process and the product of planning, designing, and constructing buildings or any other structures.

Firm: A firm is a business organization such as a corporation, limited liability company (LLC), or partnership that sells goods or services to make a profit.

Performance:  This simply refers to the effectiveness or efficiency of a particular organization i.e it entails the measurement of the result of an organization against target goal.

Information Communication Technology:  ICT is a generic concept that refers to all form of technological innovations like telephone, internet, television and email.

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 Literature Review

2.1 Introduction

This chapter focuses on the review of related literature. A literature review includes the current knowledge as well as theoretical and methodological contributions to a particular topic. It documents the state of the art with respect to the topic you are writing. It surveys the literature in the topic selected. In this research work the literature review includes the …

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