Preliminary Pages CHAPTER ONE
1.1 Background of the Study
1.2 Statement of the problem
1.3 Objectives of the study
1.4 Research Questions
1.5 Statement of Hypothesis
1.6 Significance of the Study
1.7 Scope of the Study
1.8 Limitation of the Study
1.9 Definition of Terms CHAPTER TWO
2.0 Literature Review
2.2 Conceptual Approaches to the study of Technological Transfer.
2.3 The concept of Agricultureal co operative Societies in Nigeria
2.4 Technological Transfer Strategies for small farm Mechanization
2.5 Contribution of Agriculture to Economic development in Nigeria
2.6 Theoretical Consideration of the adoption of Technological Transfer
2.7 Programme of action for successful Transformation of Nigeria Agricultural co operative Societies
2.8 Key Agricultural development, supportive and service delivery programme of the federal government and its effects on agricultural co operative development in Nigeria.
3.0 Research Design and methodology
3.2 Research Design
3.3 Source/ Method of data Collection
3.4 Population and Sample Size
3.5 Sampling Techniques
3.6 Validity and Reliability of Measuring Instruments
3.7 Method of data Analysis
4.0 Presentation and Analysis of Data
4.2 Presentation of Data
4.3 Analysis of Data
4.4 Test of Hypothesis
4.5 Interpretation of Results
5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
5.2 Summary of Findings
1.0 IntroductionA cooperative movement represents a unique method of organizing business. It grows out peoples desire to provide satisfactory services for their benefits. It's spread demonstrated that tradition business methods did not satisfy the needs of all the people. People have come together to achieve common objectives. This coming together was always encouraged as the need arose. Cooperative associations are example of this gathering.
According to encyclopedia American volume 7, A cooperative society is defined as a voluntary economic association in which the members share the earned dividends the financial benefits that result from doing business at cost or without profit. A good example of a cooperative movement is agricultural cooperative.
Adegeye et al (1982) defined cooperatives as business enterprises or organizations owned and controlled by members (members- patron) and they aim at rendering service for the mutual benefits of all members. Since agriculture is the main employer of labour in Nigerian economy.
In Yanga (1998) emphasized farmers cooperative and opined that cooperative is a form of organization where persons (farmers) voluntary associated together on the basis of equality for the promotion of their economic interest. Cooperatives offer an ideal way of mobilizing the resources and energies of the masses for their own good under their own initiative and control. In this way, they contribute increasing agricultural production.
Agricultural cooperative is a system which related workers or businessmen are organized to help members increase their productivity and profit from their business (Ogujiofor 2001). Agricultural cooperatives achieve this goal by providing members with the products and services they need to reduce their operational costs and to operate more efficiently. Emphasis on the members of the cooperative society.
The idea of technology transfer was to help the inappropriate agricultural technologies, poor developing countries to move from traditional based credit systems especially for women inadequate supply agriculture to science and technology base agriculture of inputs, low crop yield and back of enough markets.
Use of appropriate technological capabilities of an organization and technologies, provide storage facilities fortnightly increasing the performance of a particular organization training field demonstration and linking these women to agriculture. The result obtained from this research work would serve according to literature, in 1970's to 1990's.
The term agricultural development all over the world has posed problems whose solutions are difficult for countries concise to solve. However, it has been considered by specialists all over the world not only from the agricultural technical point of view or economic planning but equally from social and political point of view. But since the problems appear to be more of economic in character, both social and political aspects seem to be forgotten.
We have to be reminded that since agricultural development affects the fundamental interests of the people, who are often the victims of outdated agricultural methods of production, it stands therefore, that the international exchange of experts opinion should be published more so to developing countries. Though the scope of this work may not cover all but it will be good to mention that the result of the exchange of opinion, mentioned above falls under the following headings,
Interrelation between the development of agriculture and other sectors of the economy.
The institutional structure for agricultural development
The role of government in agricultural development
Land tenure system e. t. c
Agriculture is the most widespread of all the human activities that exist in nature today. This involves the use of the land as a home for crops and animals to grow and provide man with the basic needs of life. The most important of these needs is food. Throughout the ages his major pre-occupation has been on how to obtain food from these plants and animals. This past knowledge and skills had helped him to develop a number practices that employed to obtain his food.
From the discovery of agriculture, with time the primitive man observed that after throwing away waste or excess food materials new plants grew where such fruits or pieces landed. Thus he accidentally discovered that the old plants could be deliberately sown to grow and yield fruits. He also realized that as time went on some of the wild animals that he captured earlier grow and reproduced within his premises. Instead of going out to hunt for animals whenever he needed meat, he kept some alive in his dwelling place in order to grow, reproduce and possibly perform other duties for him. Such animals could be slaughtered for meat, skin and bone or be used as a companion for working and hunting.
Meanwhile, the term technology has been derived to apply to all these areas of existence in which man has successfully utilized scientific knowledge in order to create a better environment for himself. In other words, technology is good to man's existence in order to create a better life and environment.
Better technology, which will make the study and application of technology more efficient. It is therefore evident that for the full scope or that used to derived and appreciated, they should both be considered together.
Within a given society technical change involves a process of invention, innovation and diffusion of the new technique by imitation and acceptance. But an accepted technology transferred to another society involves commercial risks, a need to change, so that the transfer becomes more an innovative process. To receipt society is new technology however much accepted in the disseminating society.
In Nigeria, land reform and consolidation of fragmented holding will be needed. This will not only help to accelerate technological change and stimulate production in the long run but also will help to generate rural employment. From history, we have learnt that land reform is seldom to tidy affair. It is always time consuming.
Land reform has posed serious problems all over the world which, left to farmers alone they cannot solve it. It is an axiom all over the world, that farmers find it very difficult to attract any credit from banks in the absence of commercial acceptable securities to enable them reform the land. In view of this fact, countries like India, Ceylon, Israel, Japan, Canada, Germany and Denmark farmers have jointly with their governments solve their land reform and agricultural problems through effective farmers cooperative. Some developing countries who have emulated this ideology have not achieved rapid result but lasting one of the problems rural development which invariably lies in agriculture.
The rural farmers in the communities are very poor individually for them to undertake responsibility of increasing agricultural production. One of the agencies recognized as an instrument for the economic development of the masses is cooperative movement. In spite of several arguments posed by some schools of thought about this type of cooperative organization, the generally acceptable argument in the context of our rural community is that farmers multipurpose should be a service center for all the needs of the farmers in the village communities.
Added to this, it should provide necessary services to non farmers; such as artisans, tailors carpenters, fishermen who are living in the villages and whose economy is blended with that of the agriculturist. In effect, through the medium of farmers multipurpose cooperatives the cultivators and others in the village communities have to be in touch for all or many of their requirements. Since farmers are in the best mode to reform the land through cooperative movement, let us examine it.
1.1 Background Of The Study
Agriculture remains dominated by medieval technology hoes, knives and brute force. Transportation of agricultural produce is for the most part by human labour, even given the opening up of the rural areas by DFRRI. And even when there has been increase in agricultural production, due to favourable weather, efforts to improve collective activities and new entrants e t c. the bulk of producers are still to have their skills upgrade and the impact of overall industrialization in stimulating agriculture is yet to be fully appreciated. Even though there has been increase in agricultural production due to the entry of manufacturing companies and emerging big farmers care should be taken to ensure that small producers are not displaced without providing alternatives.
Adequate man power is skill lacking in critical sectors even when the R and D institutions have made impressive innovations which have not been commercialized. All these have led to asymmetries of:
a) Means of production, resulting primarily from lack of capacity to produce capital goods.
b) Technical knowledge developed and hoarded by developed countries
c) Skill resulting from dependence on developed countries for critical skills
d) Decision-making implying our inability to take autonomous decision in matters of national development e t c.
One of the variable means of technology development is through the development of entrepreneurship provides one with the best means of agricultural promotion and agro-based industrialization of developing country such as Nigeria.
Because of the vast agricultural potentialities of Nigeria, major investments would be expected in crop livestock and fisheries production to entrance entrepreneurial abilities of investors in the sector as well as to ensure national self-sufficient in food and fiber production. Investments would also be required in the main and subsidiary industries that would use agricultural produce as raw materials.
Investments would similarly be required in transportation and infrastructural resources development and manufacture/fabrication of appropriate mechanization technologies and for the unfarming primary and secondary processing on agricultural produce for local consumption and for industrial usage.
About 55% of Nigerians roots and tubers are consumed locally (especially potatoes, cocoyam, yam and cassava). The remaining percentage has great industrial and export potentials. The legumes (groundnut, Soya bean e t c.) can be processed into vegetable oil (using appropriate mechanization technologies) for local consumption and for export market.
The resulting cake boast of a wide array of fruits and vegetables which are grown under rained and irrigated agriculture. These constitute great investment opportunities for entrepreneurs, it's processing and packaging are appropriately organized and distribution and marketing strategies perfectly worked out.
1.2 Statement Of The Problem
Agricultural cooperative like any other cooperative societies are known to face many problems. Some of these problems are common to most societies while some of them are peculiar to a agricultural cooperatives such problems include the following:
Farm inputs are quite inadequate fertilizers and chemicals which are quite never sufficient for farmers in the country are not supplied as at when due. Most of the farm inputs are produced outside Nigeria. This contributes to make their prices high for farmers to afford.
Problem of acquisition of large portion of farmland for commercial farming; due to type of land tenure system existing in the country, large area of land is not always available for commercial agriculture.
Inadequate fabricating farm implements are grossly insufficient where they are available.
Inadequate technical manpower or service the implements and some machines is not adequate.
Technical manpower to operate or service the implements and some machines is not adequate.
Varied soil types:Soil types are extremely varied and the technology to use on them may not have been developed locally. West African countries like Nigeria for instance still depend on foreign technology, which is not too suitable for soil.
Inadequate finance as well as credit facilities pose stumbling block to cooperative farmers antidote. With the impediment posed by this, the farmers find it very difficult to purchase agricultural tools as well machinery. They cannot purchase improved seedlings nor can they buy enough fertilizers and chemicals for their farms.
At times, climate disappoints farmers when there is drought, farmers do not plant as at when due this poses great problem for them over their production.
Lack of programme on agricultural education meet up with modernization in agriculture.
1.3 Objectives Of The Study
The objectives of the study include;
a) To examine whether technological transfer have bring any change in the transformation of agricultural cooperative societies.
b) To examine if there is a programme of actions for transformation agricultural production in Nigeria.
c) To examine the need for adoption of better farming methods and the extension of farming activities.
d) To examine if agricultural cooperative can be used to increase the production of agricultural raw materials.
e) To examine if there is any other lawful thing that will enhance the economic benefit of the members.
f) To examine whether the cooperative society have engage themselves in farming operations such as cassava production, maize and vegetable.
g) To examine whether technological transfer in agriculture have created any impact in the development of agriculture in Nigeria.
1.4 Research Questions
In carrying out research on this topic some research questions were made:
Can climate factor disturb farmer or disappoint farmers from not producing their produce as at when due?
Are there programmes organized by the Agricultural extension services to improve your crop production?
Is there large portion of farm land mapped out for commercial farming?
Do you have adequate farm input for planting and harvesting all your farm produce?
Has agriculture extension workers reached your doorstep?
Is there any lawful thing that can enhance the economic benefit of your members?
1.5 Statement Of Hypothesis
HO: There is no specific problem facing agricultural development in Nigeria.
H1: There are several problems that face agricultural development in Nigeria.
HO: Agricultural extension workers have not rendered any help towards the development of agriculture in Nigeria.
HI: Agricultural extension workers have rendered several help towards agricultural development in Nigeria.
1.6 Significance Of The Study
The significance of the study shows that the researcher wants to carry out a research work on what functions and benefits has agricultural cooperative societies has for the socio-economic growth and development of the cooperative society. The researcher also have an empirical bias whether to support all the sources about the poor impression people have of agricultural cooperative societies and advice them on how to improve their services by going through the researchers recommendation.
This project will also be useful to agricultural cooperative societies, economic planners, students, instructors and general public. It is also hoped to be a reference document for pestering. This study will also guide individual investors who may wish to operate along cooperative line.
Significantly, individuals cannot apply for loans and attract government's attention on installing infrastructure and other social amenities. Individuals cannot establish rigidly programmes, principle policies that will enhance development and well being of the society efficiently without coming together as a body entity for idea and information from a group which in turn will bring solution to problem.
Lastly, as an individual, it is not easy to bargain for discounts, in the inputs marketing and ensured steady supply of inputs but agricultural cooperative societies can be able to attract this.
1.7 Scope Of Study
The scope of this write up covers the programme of action for successful transformation of Nigeria agricultural cooperative society. It also limits itself to the importance of agricultural development in Nigeria. And the study area is limited to some selected farmers cooperative societies in Ideato Local government area of Imo State.
The scope of this study also is very wide, if it has to be carried out in all farmers cooperative society in Ideato Local government area but it was a selected research and also limited approximately due to financial constraint and also basically directed on the fact that there is no time and material resources to see the whole Ideato South Local Government Area.
1.8 Limitation Of The Study
This study is limited to Ideato South local government area and the findings may not be valid for the whole local government. But by the entire state at large. What happens in Ideato South can be said to be applied in other agricultural cooperative society in the town.
All human activities are beset with some, problems, which the researcher encountered during the courses of the study. Some of the problems are listed below;
Firstly, problems of transportation due to scarcity of fuel during distribution and collection of the questionnaires for the project.Secondly, problems of finance, this made the researcher to limit to Imo State as I could not travel to gather facts outside Imo State.Thirdly, the indifference attitude of the cooperative officials toward organizing and managing their records properly makes it difficult to obtain correct data.
Fourthly, lack of time coupled with crowded semester programmes. The researcher was attending lectures at the same time working on project.