1.1 Background Of The Study
The prime objective of every government is to maintain law and order, to provide and maintain basic essential services without which the community will be unimaginable and which by their nature cannot be left appropriately in the hands of private entrepreneurs. Such services include Internal Law and Order, Maintenance of National defense, provision of good healthcare system, educational system, transportation system, agricultural system etc.
To cover the cost of providing these goods and services for the public good, government must generate financial and adequate revenues. The quest to governing meaningful financial resources has often led government to designing and administering some efficient and effective revenue generation systems. Primarily the main source of government revenue includes;
Amongst these sources, taxation (the demand made by the government of a country for a compulsory payment of money by the citizens of that country.) remains the most outstanding. This may be due to it being a civic responsibility that must be performed by the citizens of the state. As a non-penal by compulsory transfer of resources from the private sector, taxation must be levied on the basis of equity, certainty, convenience, economy and productivity. Unfortunately, taxes are not paid in exchange for specific things but are collected for the sake of public welfare and interest.
Historically, without exaggeration, the origin of taxation is as old as mankind. The Christian bible tells us the story of Joseph in Egypt and his seven years plan. The Egyptians were heavily taxed for seven years to enable them build up a surplus of grains for storage against the year of famine. This is one of the early instances of economic planning through taxation. In Nigeria, the legal history of tax system can be traced to the native customs and traditions.
Nigerians cheerfully paid taxes in kind (rendering free services to communities in which they lived). Those who could not render these services were duly punished. These people were forced to erect community buildings or have their fat animals slaughtered for the benefit of the community.
Studies have shown that before the advent of colonial rule in Nigeria, some relatively well- organized system of taxation had existed In the north under the autocratic rule of Fulani conquerors.
The Mohammedans by enjoining their followers to give a portion of their income for charitable or religious purposes provided a religious basis for taxation in Northern Nigeria. Community taxes were also levied on communities. Akin to this were special taxes often levied by reference to occupation or on products or services produced or rendered. For instance, fishermen, smiths, hunters, weavers, etc were all subjected to pay special taxes.
Government often uses various systems (kinds) of taxations to generate the required revenues. For instance, direct taxes which include personal income tax, often applied on employees, sole traders, partnership, capital gain tax on companies, individual and non- co-operate entities, capital transfer tax (applicable asset transferred from one person to another), purchase tax, petroleum profit tax, and company income tax has constituted a significant source of revenue to the government. Similarly, indirect tax, e.g. stamp duties, custom duties, industrial training fund, toll paid on federal highways, will have often enhanced government revenues.
The administration of tax in Nigeria is in the hands of three relevant tax authorities viz:
- The joint Tax Board
- The federal Board of Inland Revenue
- The various state Board of Internal Revenue
In Nigeria, persons liable to pay income tax include men, women, married or single, trustees and executors, families, villages and indigenous communities. Though government can also raise funds through natural resources such as oil, palm oil, coal and gas which are exported, those alternative sources of income to government are hardly enough to shoulder the burden of government expenditures, especially in the area of economic and social spheres in each year, hence the need for tax payment.
We must emphasize here that income Tax Law must be interpreted in strict- to- sensor. There is no equity in tax law. The tax payer must be brought within the letter of the law and rigid adherence is the rule. Nothing should be read in and nothing should be implied.
The onus of bringing a tax payer into the tax net is on the revenue or assessment authority. Another important point to note is that tax is not imposed on person or individual. Section 4 (1) of ITMA 1961 states that “the tax shall subject to the provisions of this act, being payable for each year of assessment upon income accruing in derived form, brought or received in Nigeria.
Studies have shown that in Nigeria, workers pay more than the rich people who invest in various proper ties such as building, transporters, etc as a result of ineffective administration of taxes. Yet those investors are the category of people who would want government to move mountains in terms of raising their socio-economic well being, without meaningfully contributing towards the funds.
Now that our various government are gearing efforts to revamping over bettered economy and improving the living condition of Nigerians, the need for the evolvement of more effective strategies to ensuring regular tax payment by taxable individuals need not be overemphasized. Taxable adults and organizations in various sectors of the economy must discharge their civic responsibilities.
Unfortunately, this can only be achieved if tax systems are effectively administered so that people would in government revenue generation, willingly and without grudges pay their taxes.
This will result to improvement in government revenue generation, hence the basis for this research study.
1.2 Statement Of The Problem
In developed societies, taxation is a sure, steady and main source of funds for social and economic development. This is because citizens of these societies are voluntarily committed to it. But in developing countries such as Nigeria, majority of the self employed people dread any mention of income tax.
They see tax collection as nuisance in their life. Some take to their heels once a tax collector is sighted. In some case, they engage in physical combat with tax collectors. Those who summon courage to pay, underpay their tax liabilities by resulting to false declaration of their income, yet absence of well audited financial statements to enhance proper assessment often compound the situation.
Most traders, salaried persons are companies are guilty of this evil act. They device the means of evading appropriate payments by swearing false affidavits in a bid to collecting much tax- free income.
This trend of event has often resulted to loss of tax revenues, which would have aided government in financing its expenditure. For instance, studies have shown that in 1986, then Imo state realized 73% of its total revenue projection from taxation for that year. In that same trend, the 1987 account of the state revealed a short fall of tax revenue of about 19.42% from three year's projected tax income to government.
In the light of these monumental failures on the part of government to meet its responsibility of providing adequate economic and social infrastructures to make life worthy of living, the researcher has beamed his search light on the management aspect of taxation in Anambra state, using Orumba south L.G.A as the case study. By determining the effect of tax management on revenue generation, the researcher hopes to contribute meaningful in assisting government improve the generation of its tax revenue.
Several studies have been conducted on taxation and tax management, but none of these studies has been based on Orumba south L.G.A of Anambra state. The researcher's ability to do this constitutes the point of departure from others.
1.3 Objective Of The Study
Specifically, the study seeks to:
- Determine whether tax administration in the state is effective enough to enhance the generation of adequate tax revenue.
- Expose the lapses inherent in the management of tax systems in the state so that, corrective step can be taken by those concerned with tax administration
- Determine whether the lapses in the management of tax systems are responsible for power tax revenue generation.
- Recommend appropriate ways of tax management that will enable the governed appreciate tax payment as necessary burden which all taxable adults should voluntarily bear.
1.4 Research Question
In accomplishing the objective of this research study answers would be provided to the following research questions:
- Can effective and efficient tax management result to increased generation of tax revenue?
- Is government's inadequacy in the provision of social amenities attributable to default in tax payment?
- Are these well- developed statutory systems by which taxation is regulated in Nigeria?
- Are the existing tax laws in Nigeria effective enough to enhance the generation of adequate tax revenue?
- Do the tax laws provide enough authority for prosecuting tax defaulters?
- Do Nigerians see tax payment as a civic duty?
- Why do Nigerians avoid tax payment?
1.5 Significance Of The Study
In this research study, the researcher would through the review of related literature, establish a theoretical frame work of what effective tax management is all about. Such frame work if judiciously followed, will enhance generation of adequate tax revenue which has often eluded government. The significance of the study therefore is that;
- Those charged with the responsibility of generating tax revenue will have the opportunity to appraise the system of tax administration in use by them vis-Ã -vis the established framework. They could compare their system with that provided in the study so that necessary adjustment can be made to restraining the effectiveness of this system. The report will also provide various measures to be adopted in combating task evasion and avoidance in Anambra state so that tax revenue to government can be enhanced.
- The study will be useful to students of financial studies e.g. Accountancy, Banking and Finance, Economics, Business education and member of the Nigerian taxation (N. I. T) apart from constituting a source of secondary data for scholars wishing to carry on research studies in tax management, the report will also form the basis upon which further studies on our topic of study can be advanced.
1.6 Scope Of The Study
This research study was conducted to determine The Impact of Good Tax Management on Revenue Generation in Anambra State using Orumba south L.G.A as the area of study. The result of the study will reflect the circumstances in terms of the subject matter of study will reflect the circumstances in terms of the subject matter of study in Orumba south and will only be generalized to cover other Local Government areas in Anambra State, having similar structures, infrastructural status and operation under the influence of similar environmental variables as Orumba South Local Government Area.
1.7 Limitation Of The Study
- Time: Due to unavailability of time, as we had to combine both research and lectures, the study was limited. Also lack of resources was a limitation to the study.
- Distance: Finance is one of the major problems encountered during the research of this study. This was in terms of transport fair and typing the questionnaire.
- Extraction of useful information: This was another problem encountered the respondents were busy with their worker and pay less attention to the questionnaire for their opinion.
- Finance: Finance is one of the major problems encountered during the research of this study. This was terms of transport fair and typing the questionnaire.
1.8 Definition Of Terms
Tax: This is a compulsory levy imposed on taxable individuals by the government
Personal Income Tax: This is tax on income of individuals.
Direct Taxes: These are taxes in which the incidence falls directly on the tax payer.
Tax Avoidance: This involves utilizing the lapses in the tax system to ensure a reduced tax liability.
Tax Evasion: This is a deliberate and unlawful means of reducing the tax liability of a person.
The Income Tax Management Act (ITMA): This contains the provisions that govern the administration of personal income tax.
Tax Revenue:Income generated by government from collection of tax levies.
Income Tax: This is concerned with taxes on income of companies and taxable person
Tax System:Method of collection and administration of the tax.
Taxable Adult:Any adult carrying out business profession or vocation and generate income.