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An Analysis of the Increase in Mortality Rate as a Result of Abortion Among Young Women of Childbearing Age in Benin Metropolis

An Analysis of the Increase in Mortality Rate as a Result of Abortion Among Young Women of Childbearing Age

Project / Seminar Material
Reference ID: PS-212-TM

DEDICATION

This research material titled “An Analysis of the Increase in Mortality Rate as a Result of Abortion Among Young Women of Childbearing Age” is dedicated to God for his enabling grace, and to all computer enthusiasts who contributed to make life a pleasant experience during my research documentation.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I extend my sincere gratitude to all those who contributed to the completion of this project. Special thanks to my Supervisor (Name of your Supervisor), the Head of Department (Name of your HOD), the Lecturers in the department of Applied Science, Book Authors and Profound Scholars of existing or related project material on “An Analysis of the Increase in Mortality Rate as a Result of Abortion Among Young Women of Childbearing Age” for their invaluable guidance, support, and expertise throughout the journey.

I am also grateful to your study area (mention any funding organizations, if applicable) for their financial assistance. This research would not have been possible without the encouragement and assistance of some stakeholders (mention any mentors, teachers, or colleagues). Additionally, I would like to acknowledge the understanding and patience of my family and friends during this endeavor. Your unwavering support has been a constant source of motivation. Thank you all for being part of this meaningful endeavor.


An Analysis of the Increase in Mortality Rate as a Result of Abortion Among Young Women of Childbearing Age in Benin Metropolis

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PRELIMINARY PAGES


CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • 1.1 Introduction
  • 1.2 Background of Study
  • 1.3 Statement of Problems
  • 1.4 Aim and Objectives of Study
  • 1.5 Research Questions
  • 1.6 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.7 Significance of Study
  • 1.8 Scope of Study
  • 1.9 Limitations of the Study
  • 1.10 Definition of terms

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Conceptual Review
  • 2.3 Reasons Why Women Conduct Abortion
  • 2.4 Effects of Unsafe Abortion
  • 2.5 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.5.1 Causes of Abortion
  • 2.5.2 Classification of Miscarriage Abortion
  • 2.6 Empirical Studies

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Research Design
  • 3.3 Population of Study
  • 3.4 Sampling and Sampling Technique
  • 3.5 Validation of Research Instrument
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Questionnaire
  • 3.8.1 Interview
  • 3.8.2 Key Informants Interview
  • 3.8.3 Observation
  • 3.9 Ethical Consideration
  • 3.10 Statistical Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR

DATA ANALYSIS, RESULT AND DISCUSSION

  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Presentation and Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Re-statement of Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypothesis 1
  • 4.5 Discussion of Findings

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Summary of Findings
  • 5.3 Conclusion
  • 5.4 Recommendation

REFERENCES

APPENDIX A - “QUESTIONNAIRE”

ABSTRACT

Abortion refers to the induced removal of human pregnancy. It could mean a plan or arrangement which takes place in the foetus before it can develop properly. The study was carried out to analyze reasons responsible for increase in abortion and mortality rates among young women in Benin Metropolis. In achieving this aim, the following specific objectives were laid out to determine whether the legalization of abortion will reduce maternal mortality rates and assess the level of mortality rates in abortion related cases among young girls in Benin Metropolis. Investigation revealed that the Despite the fact that a large number of women die every day all over the world as a result of abortion, the practice is still increasing. It is a worrisome problem worldwide and the rate at which it is procured is alarming.

The research design used in this report is descriptive design, utilizing questionnaire method to obtain information from the respondents for this project. A total of 150 (one hundred and fifty) respondents were selected for this study to represent the entire population of the study. For null hypotheses were formulated and tested using the one-way ANOVA and the t-test statistical tools at zero point zero five (0.05) level of significance. Primary data were collected from the primary source which questionnaire was used as an instrument of data collection while secondary data were sources from textbooks, journals, newspapers and the internet were employed. The data were presented on a frequency distribution table and analyzed using simple percentage, while hypothesis was tested using chi-square test.

Results obtained indicated that: Abortion was identified to be responsible for the increase in maternal mortality rate among young women in Benin Metropolis; Mortality rates in abortion related cases can be reduced among young women in Benin Metropolis through sex education; there is a need for proper and special approach, which is individual confidential approach to counselling abortion victims; people are of the opinion that if abortion is made legal maternal mortality rate will not be reduced and will lead to high abortion incidence and government has a lot to contribute to issue of abortion related maternal mortality.

The findings of the study may go a long way in discouraging young girls from procuring abortion and helping the government in solving the problem. This study would also form a basis for further research work in abortion and related problems in Nigeria. Based on the findings, it is recommended that organizations advocating for safe abortion in countries like Nigeria should focus more efforts on the rights of the Young Women to make choices regarding their health.


An Analysis of the Increase in Mortality Rate as a Result of Abortion Among Young Women of Childbearing Age in Benin Metropolis

CHAPTER ONE

1.1 Introduction

Abortion is a relatively used term. It is the word used to describe the act of termination of pregnancy by the removal or expulsion from the uterus of a foetus or embryo prior to viability. The term Abortion most commonly refers to the induced removal of human pregnancy. It could mean a plan or arrangement which takes place in the foetus before it can develop properly. Popular use of the word abortion implies a deliberate pregnancy termination and some prefer the word miscarriage to refer to spontaneous foetal loss before viability. This definition implies a legal perception of the age at which a foetus can survive out of the womb. An estimated 44 million abortions are performed globally each year, with slightly under half of those performed unsafely (Sedghet al., 2012).

As a prelude to other parts of this study, this chapter will discuss the background upon which this study was initiated, the statement of problems that led to this study, the Aim and Objectives of the study. Others are Significance of the study, Scope of work, Research hypothesis and questions, Limitations of the Study and Definition of technical terms.


1.2 Background of Study

In Nigeria, as in all parts of the world, women experience unplanned pregnancy. Some of these women seek to terminate their pregnancies by safe medical methods or by other unorthodox methods available. The procurement of abortion is by no means a new phenomenon in Nigeria. The main reason why young girls and women procure abortion is always changing. Increasingly, women procure abortion due to desire to avoid premarital births and to control family size (Aboyeji, 2003). However, abortion as it is used in this study is the act of terminating or stopping the development of a child in the womb of a woman either by medical operation or self medication.

Abortion, when induced in the developed world in accordance with local laws is among the safest procedures in medicine. Notwithstanding, unsafe abortion occurs in approximately 70,000 maternal death and 5 million cases of disabilities are recorded yearly, globally (Wikipedia, 2021). Abortion is an age old practise, it was universally practised but not universally accepted. It was seen as a social evil, one that brought down the curse of the gods. The evil notion that primitive people heard about was so profound that it was believed in some tribes that abortion committed by a married woman could cause the husband to be sterile especially when the husband is not responsible (Olaitan, 2003)

The above reasons did not stop the practise of abortion among primitive people. Women in the olden days would rather have their pregnancy terminated than to have the child to be raised in slavery. Pregnancies involving members of the same family were aborted because it was seen as a taboo. Lactating women who become pregnant had the pregnancies aborted to ensure the flow of milk for the living child.

Primitive men used crude, traumatic and often ineffective means to terminate pregnancy which led to the deaths of the victims. Today, abortion continues to be practised whether forbidden or accepted for a variety of social, political, economic and religious reason that are not completely different from those given by primitive men (Boyd, 2006). Over the years, due to advanced science and technology, man has been able to tackle problems more effectively than primitive men.

Abortion is seen by many in the world today as immoral and ungodly, an act that calls for a punishment from both God and man. Many others still see abortion as a means of regulating the population and balancing the socio economic needs of the family. For this above reason, abortion has been the centre of many legal, social, political and religious debates in the countries all over the world (Jones, 2004).

Abortion is a life threatening issue, one that has claimed the lives of thousands of young women and girls all over the world, therefore, it is an issue that concerns everyone in the society no matter what your stand is on abortion. Consider a young girl of fourteen who gets pregnant and is desperate for a solution. Since she is unable to face the consequences of pregnancy at this age, she may not even know who is responsible for her pregnancy after realizing she is pregnant due to obvious signs of pregnancy (nausea, insomnia, etc).

On the other hand, this young girl may decide to procure an abortion herself or may find herself in the hands of quacks such as half-baked nurses, medical school dropouts, traditional medicine practitioners and other paramedical quacks which could lead to loss of life or sustenance of severe complications which may affect the womb. In this situation, who is to blame for her death? Is it her teachers, parents, peers, the young girl herself, the abortionist or the society at large? The plight of these young adolescents at this period of life is pitiable because they probably have been exposed to sexual intercourse at a very young age. They also may have indulged in sex without being aware of the consequences of their action which in fact speaks of ignorance and innocence. Again, these young girls may have been lured into sex by older members of the community seeking pleasure. These individuals may deceive these young girls to engage in premarital sex.

In whatever way abortion is performed on these young girls, whoever the abortionist is and whatever reasons these girls have to procure abortion, the fact still remains that these young girls are dying daily in their thousands and nothing has been done to remedy the situation.

Therefore, in Benin Metropolis where the research was carried out, the activities that was conducted is to analyze the Increase Mortality Rate as a Result of Abortion among Young Women.


1.3 Statement of Problems

Investigation revealed that the Despite the fact that a large number of women die every day all over the world as a result of abortion, the practise is still increasing. It is a worrisome problem worldwide and the rate at which it is procured is alarming. Families have experienced the trauma of losing a child; marriages have been broken because some young girls have become barren before marriage, all as a result of too many abortions. When death from abortion occurs, the argument on who is responsible is endless.

Therefore, it is pertinent to reflect on the abortion problem and find out what it is that makes young girls who are still at puberty stage procure abortion. So far, very little has been done on reasons responsible for adolescents' procurement of abortion and the increase in mortality rate. This leaves a gap in Nigerian health education literature and hence the study.


1.4 Aim and Objectives of Study

The aim of the study is to analyze reasons responsible for increase in abortion and mortality rates among young women in Benin Metropolis. In achieving this aim, the following specific objectives were laid out as follows:

  1. To find out how mortality rates can be reduced in abortion related cases among young girls in Benin Metropolis;
  2. To examine the contribution of government towards the increment of abortion related cases;
  3. To assess the level of mortality rates in abortion related cases among young girls in Benin Metropolis;
  4. To determine whether the legalization of abortion will reduce maternal mortality rates; and
  5. To ascertain the approaches that can be used in counselling abortion victims in Benin Metropolis.

1.5 Research Questions

The study came up with research questions so as to be able to ascertain the above stated objectives. The specific research questions for the study are stated below as follows:

  • If abortion is legalized, will it reduce maternal mortality rates?
  • Is government contributing to increase in abortion related cases?
  • Is there an increase mortality rates in abortion related cases among young girls in Benin Metropolis?
  • Which approaches can be used in counselling abortion victims?
  • How can mortality rates be reduced in abortion related cases among young girls in Benin Metropolis?

1.6 Research Hypothesis

In order to pursue the objective of this study, the following generalized statements have been designed to guide and aids in obtaining the result for the experiment to be conducted. For this work, the null hypothesis will be represented with H0 while the alternative hypothesis will be represented with hypothesis H1.

Hypothesis One

  • H0: There is no increased level of mortality rates in abortion related cases among young girls in Benin Metropolis
  • H1: There is an increased level of mortality rates in abortion related cases among young girls in Benin Metropolis

1.7 Significance of Study

The findings of this study may help create public awareness on the dangers of abortion and help in educating young girls on the “do's and don'ts” of abortion related issues. This study is geared towards making necessary recommendations on alternative solutions to abortion.

The findings of the study may go a long way in discouraging young girls from procuring abortion and helping the government in solving the problem. This study would also form a basis for further research work in abortion and related problems in Nigeria.


1.8 Scope of Study

The scope of the research is focused on the Analysis of the Increase in Mortality Rate as a Result of Abortion among Young Women in Benin Metropolis The study is hinged on educating young girls in Benin metropolis about the dangers and complications of abortion as well as to reduce mortality rate among young girls on related issues.


1.9 Limitations of the Study

During the course of this study, many things militated against its completion, some of which are:

  1. Time Constraint: The time frame given to accomplish this project was very short due to school academic calendar and it was carried out under pressure which made the researcher not to implement some necessary features.
  2. Establishment Policies: Establishment policies posed a serious limitation as most staffs are not ready to release information needed for this project work. There were lots of information needed from the staffs of this establishment to enhance the study which took them time to release or they did not release at all for security purposes, hence the scope was reduced.
  3. Research material: availability of research material is a major setback to the scope of the study.
  4. Frequent power failure: This made the researcher append more money on fuel to ensure sustainable power.
  5. Financial Constraint: Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

1.10 Definition of terms

Abortionist: A person who carries out abortion on pregnant women in order to get money

Insomnia: Lack of sleep due to worry on how to proffer solutions on unwanted pregnancies

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 Literature Review

2.1 Introduction

This chapter focuses on the review of related literature. A literature review includes the current knowledge as well as theoretical and methodological contributions to a particular topic. It documents the state of the art with respect to the topic you are writing. It surveys the literature in the topic selected. In this research work the literature review includes the …

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