1.1 Background Of The Study
A government budget is blue print which clearly outline government expenditure vis-à-vis government revenue and retains plans ahead, etc. consequently, nations plans ahead in terms of revenue and expenditure within a specific period of time, so as individual or an state conceptualizes anticipated revenue and disbursement within a specific period of time.
Every organization whether economic, social, political, public or private sector has set out objectives ,they make plans for future. Since every organization has set out objectives, the way it tend to achieve these objectives could be the maximization of profits, prove services and Minimization of cost. Each organization has to plan in order to meet such objectives and budgeting is part of planning, some organization liquidate due to poor planning, while some others fail due to poor budgeting control techniques.
The realization of organizational objectives requires the requisition and utilization of both human and material resources. to achieve this objective, the organization tries to economize or manage its scarce resources and produce a means of achieving its pre-determined goals. As a result of these scarce resource, it is very essential that organization has to determine the most effective way of reducing cost of production while maximizing its production . modern business management requires the use of some techniques in the formulation and adoption of plans (good tools and system) with a view to achieving set out goals. Such tools and systems include budgeting, variance analysis and budgetary control.
The process setting goals or objectives to be achieved by some future point in time and determine there goals are to be reached is described a planning while the process of translating the planning into financial target can be described as budgeting. The term budgeting and accounting in which all operations are forecasted in advance and actual results championed with budgeted and differences slipped and explained. Budgetary control techniques here help ed many organizations since the success of any organization depends on the planning and execution of budget plans.
According to lucey(1984)p.23, budgeting can be defined as the process of preparing a short term and detailed plan of activities of an organization and converting the strategies long term plans into action. The degree of importance attached to this plan and the effort made in controlling the deviation from the planned performance differ among business and government and between private and public corporations. Some organization especially government parastatals view budgeting as a mere accounting tool, which a meant to be exceeded. The department heads in government parastatals believe to get more money (allocations) in the next budget the present allocation must be fully utilized whether reasonable or unreasonably.
More so, Horngreen and forester(1987)p.139 defined budget as a quantitative expression of a plan of action and an aid to coordination and implementation. It qualifies the expectation regarding future incomes, cash flows, financial position and supporting plans. however, budget serve as a Variety of additional functions like evaluating performance of workers, coordinating activities, implementing plans, communicating, motivating and authorizing actions. Authorizing action seems to predominate in government budgeting and non- profit budgeting.
A budget is predetermined statement of management policy at given period, which provides a standard for comparison with the results actually achieved. The process of establishing budget is known as budgeting while the process of assigning responsibility for achievement while comparing it with the planned performance is known As budgetary control. Consequently, budgetary control is a system o controlling cost, which includes the preparation of budgets, coordinating the departments and establishing responsibilities, comparing actual upon results to achieve maximum profitability, osisioma(1989).
The purpose of control is to ensure that operation and performance confirm to the plan. The control aspect of budgetary control activities is a management function variance that is controllable. Budgetary control therefore acts as a guide on the executive capacity by controlling their scope of expenditure. Based on this, it also coordinates the functions and efforts of different departments and ensure effective supervision of workers in the organization.
In view of this, variation from set standard can be detected and corrected at the early stage.
This study is aimed at finding out the budgetary control Systems adopted and applied by government parastatals. This budgetary system aims at providing all ranks of management with enough information for recording, planning and measuring performance in relation to set objectives. It also determines the control techniques applied in cost reduction and the comparison between the planned and actual performance. the focal point of this study is general hospital Owerri ,which is one of government parastatals.
1.2 Statement Of The Problems
- Poor planning
- Non adherence to budgetary control techniques(implementation)
- Improper record keeping
- Inadequate coordination
- Low level of understanding
- Inefficient communication
1.3 Objectives Of The Study
On view of the problems associated with poor budgeting control, the researcher intends to find out the procedures of annual budget in the hospital. One purpose of study is to determine whether budgetary control as a management tool contributes to the improvement of managerial efficiency and productivity. The purpose will be analyzed as followed.
- To find out whether the achievement of budgetary control is as a result of setting unrealistic target thereby demoralizing the workers.
- To ensure whether the appraisal of the managements performance is based on the budgeting analysis.
- To examine the extent to which the officers-in-charge of budget centers account for their responsibility.
- To determine whether variance are built in to the incentives or disciplinary system of the hospital
- To proffer solution to the problems of poor implementation of plans and inadequate coordination of budgetary procedures that affect the hospital.
1.4 Research Questions
On view of the problem associated with this topic, the following research question, which is vital for the in-depth analysis of this topic are addressed by researcher.
- Does budgeting control contributed to the improvement of managerial efficiency and high productivity?
- Is low level of revenue generation as a result of setting unrealistic target, thereby demoralizing the workers?
- Are the appraisals of the management's performance based on the budget?
- Are the officer-in-charge of budgeting accountable for the objectives?
- Are variances built in to the incentives or disciplinary system of the institute/hospital?
- To what extent does the problem of implementation and inadequate coordination affect the hospital?
1.5 Significant Of The Study
The successful completion of this research work will be of increase benefit to the society at large and general hospital Owerri ,lmo state, being my case study in particular.
This research work will improve the internal control system of the management of general hospital Owerri ,imo state in particular and other corporate entities in general.
The management of general hospital Owerri, imo state will benefit more from this research work as the research work enhances it's (management) information on the day to day running cost of the hospital.
The study will also reveal any financial recklessness of any department/factory head(s) of the hospital.
However ,this research will create a fresh awareness to the management of general hospital Owerri, imo state chosen as a case study and will also explore the weakness prevailing in its budget system.
The government is not left out, they can make use of the study will be of significant to several categories of person such as investor s and other users of the accounting information in decision making, it will broaden their horizon of ideas and knowledge.
1.6 Scope Of The Study
This stud focuses on the budgetary control as a tool for effective management of government agencies, with general hospital , imo stat as a case study.
1.7 Limitation Of The Study
The researcher uncounted a number of constraint in the limitation of the study.
This study was a carried out on the limited resources available to the research and this hampered the extensive coverage of the study
This is another constraint that affected the study. The researcher had limited time with which he was to complete the study on time.
Getting materials that ill assist the researcher in reviewing related literatures were not easy to come by as there few test books on the study and the researcher had to resort to journals, magazines the internet etc to get information and the cost was much.
The respondent constituted another constraint to the study. Some of them were relevant to divulge information while some did not pay attention to the researcher.
1.7 Definition Of Terms
Some of the terms used in the research work/study are explain below.
Budget is a standard with which to measure the actual achievement of people, departments, firms etc. the institute of cost and management Accountants(ICMA) defined budget as “a plan quailed in monetary terms, prepared and approved prior to income during that period and the capital to be employed attain a given objectives.
Budgetary control is the planning in advance of the variance functions of a business that the business as a whole can be controlled. It also relates expenditure to the person who incurs the expenditure so that the actual expenditure can be prepared, thus affording a convenient method of control.
According to ICMA, budgetary control is the establishment of budgets relating the responsibilities of executives to the requirements of a policy, and continuous comparisons of actual with budgeted results, either to secure by individual action the objectives of their policy or to provide a firm base for its revision.
Variance are sign posts, which alert management to the need for enquiry into causes of standard results, cost variance is the difference between the standard or budgeted cost and the comparable actual cost for a particular period.
It can be defined as any functional unit head by a manager who is responsible for the activties of that unit. This enables the manager to monitor organizational functions.
This is an organizational unit in which outputs are measures in monetary terms but are not directly compared to input costs.
These are unit where inputs are measured in monetary y terms but output are.
This is where performance is measure d by the difference between revenue (outputs) and expenditure (input). Inter-departmental sales are often made using “transfer prices”.
This is where output are compared with the assets employed in producing them.
This my consist of senior member of the organization e.g. departmental heads and executives (with the managing director as chairman) every part of the organization should be a represented on the committee, so there should be a representative from sales, production, marketing and so on.
The budget officers control the budget administration which involves liasing between the budget committee and managers responsible for budget preparation.
This document charts the organization detail the budget procedures, contains account codes of items of expenditure and revenue, time tables the process and clearly defines the responsibility of persons involved in the budgeting system.
This involves a realistic fore east. This is prepared in units of each product and also in sales values.
This is expressed in quantitative terms only and is geared to the sales budget. Here the production manager analyzes plant utilization, work –in- progress budget, know whether to hire or buy additional machinery.
This is both quantitative and financial. This is influenced by production requirements in man hours available, greatest of labour required, wages rates etc.
This is a cash plan for a defined period of time it summarizes monthly recieptes and payment. Hence, it highlights monthly surplus and deficits of actual cash. Its main uses are to maintain control over a firm's cash requirements e.g. stock and debtors.