In the past, security was simply a matter of locking the door or storing files in a locked filing cabinet or safe. Today, paper is no longer the only medium of choice for housing information. Files are stored in computer databases as well as file cabinets. Hard drives and floppy disks hold many of our secret information. In the physical world, security is a fairly simple concept. If the locks on your house’s doors and windows are so strong that a thief cannot break in to steal your belongings, the house is secure. For further protection against intruders breaking through the locks, you might have security alarms. In the digital world, security works in a similar way. One concept is privacy, meaning that no one can break into files to read your sensitive data (such as medical records) or steal money (by, for example, obtaining credit card numbers or online brokerage accounts information). Privacy is the lock on the door. Another concept, data integrity, refers to a mechanism that tells us when something has been altered.
As a prelude to other parts of this study, this chapter will discuss the background upon which this study was initiated, the statement of problems that led to this study, the Aim and Objectives of the study. Others are Significance of the study, Scope of work, Limitation of the study and Definition of technical terms.
1.2 Background of Study
National security is the requirement to maintain the survival of the state through the use of economic, security operatives especially police, political power and the exercise of diplomacy. The concept developed mostly in the United States of America after World War II focusing on the police and military might. Now, it encompasses a broad range of facets, all of which impinge on the police and military for economic security of the nation, lives property and values protected by national society. Accordingly, in order to possess national security, a nation needs to possess economic security, energy security, environmental security, etc. Security threats involve not only conventional foes such as other national states but also non- state actors such as violent non-state actors, narcotic cartels, multinational corporations and non-governmental organizations; some authorities include natural disasters and events causing severe environmental change in this category.
The origin of the modern concept of “national security” as a philosophy of maintaining a stable nation state can be traced to the peace of Westphalia, wherein the concept of a sovereign state, ruled by a sovereign, became the basis of a new international order of nation states.
As an academic concept, national security can be seen as a recent phenomenon which was first introduced in the United States after World War II, and has to some degree replaced other concepts that describe the struggle of states to overcome various external and internal threats. The struggle of states to overcome various external and internal threats. The earliest mention of the term national security, however, was made in Yale University in 1790 wherein was made to its relation with domestic industries.
The concept of the national security became an official guiding principle of foreign policy in the United States when the National security Act of 1947 was signed on July 26, 1947 by the U.S. President Harry S. Truman. Together with its 1949 amendment, this act create American national security d important facets for American national security as the precursor to the department of defense, subordinated the security operatives branches to the new cabinet level position of the secretary of defense, established the National Security council and the Central Intelligence Agency. The Act did not define national security which was conceivably advantageous as it’s ambiguity made it a powerful phrase to invoke whenever issues threatened by other interests of the state, such as domestic concerns, came up for discussion and decision making.
The realization that national security encompasses more than just security was present though understated, from the beginning itself. The US National Security Act of 1947 was set up “to advise the president on the integration of domestic security and foreign policies related to national security”. Gen Maxwell Taylor’s essay of 1947 titled “The Legitimate claims of National Security” has this to say;
The national valuables in this broad sense include current assets and national interests, as well as the sources of strength upon which our future as a nation depends. Some valuables are tangible and earthly; others are spiritual or intellectual. They range widely from political assets such as the Bill of Rights, National Security and political institutions and international relations to many economic assets which radiate worldwide from a highly productive domestic economy supported by rich natural resources. It is the urgent need to protect valuables such as these which legitimizes and makes essential the role of national security.
1.3 Statement of Problems
Security information system has always played a vital role in the stability of a nation. Keeping security information manually can hinder some defense program and delay passage of security information to the appropriate body. Manual documentation of security information can lead to exposure of the information thereby creating threat to the nation at large. Hence, there is need for an automated security information system to guaranty safety of information.
1.4 Aim and Objectives of the Study
The aim of the study is to Design and Implement a database for security information storage and retrieval. In achieving this aim, the following specific objectives were set out as follows:
- To build a database system for police security information.
- To develop a software for managing security information.
- To determine the effectiveness of Nigerian police in managing signal.
- To provide a means of safeguarding data in a system
- To develop a software that will enhance the integrity of data
1.5 Significance of Study
The new system will help to solve all the problems inherent in the existing system. The justification for the new system includes: Timely processing of security information Error free processing of data and Security of information is guaranteed Signal are received easily.
One of the most important tools for protecting your data from an authorized access is Data Encryption, any of various methods that are used to turn readable files into gibberish. Even if an attacker obtains the contents of the file, it is gibberish. It does not matter whether or not the operating system protections worked.
1.6 Scope of Study
The study focuses on the Design and Implementation of Security Information System using Nigerian Security as a case study. The research is limited only to the designation of a database system for security information storage and retrieval.
1.7 Limitations of the Study
During the course of this study, many things militated against its completion, some of which are:
- Time Constraint: The time frame given to accomplish this project was very short due to school academic calendar and it was carried out under pressure which made the researcher not to implement some necessary features.
- Research material: availability of research material is a major setback to the scope of the study.
- Frequent power failure: This made the researcher append more money on fuel to ensure sustainable power.
- Financial Constraint: Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet).
1.8 Definition of Terms
- Policing: Policing is another way of depicting the police.
- Anti-policing: Anti-policing is the society’s social attitude opposed to war between states and in particular countering arguments based on policism.
- Databases: A systematically arranged collection of computer data, structured so that it can be automatically retrieved or manipulated. It is also called a databank.
- National Security: The requirement to maintain the survival of the nation-state through the use of economic, policing, and political power and the exercise of diplomacy.
- Information Security: means protecting information and information systems from unauthorized access, use, disclosure, disruption, modification, perusal, inspection, recording, or destruction.
- Encryption: A process of converting data/information into another form.
- Decryption: A process of converting data/information (multimedia) back to its Original form.
- Clear-text/plaintext: Original data/information before it is enciphered / scrambled.
- Ciphered text/cryptogram: Information (multimedia) that has been converted into other symbols or form.
- Ciphers: The secret code used to convert plain text message.
- Internet: A global computer network providing a variety of information and communication facilities, consisting of interconnected networks using standardized communication protocols.