The advancement made in technology over the past years is astonishing. The computer alone has progressed at a remarkable pace and updates are continually occurring. Along with the progress of the computer, comes the transformation of the virtual world. The internet is a fairly recent concept that has profoundly affected our daily lives. As with anything new, the internet posses various mysteries. Research is being conducted to determine the possibilities of an online voting. Internet voting opens the door to all sorts of possibilities for our state voting future.
Therefore, voting is a means of selecting or choosing leaders. It does not apply to only local, state and federal government of Nigeria but, also in different institutions and social organizations. The conduct of elections in a democratic society is very important not only because through it, a change of government is effected but, also because voting is the main form of political participation for most people. Democracy should be anchored on election free form fraud, for it to be sound.)
Over the years, the voting operation has been put under a manual system of operation which mostly results to inaccurate and ineffective election. It is gradually being realized that much faster, accurate, effective and efficient system is needed to be adopted. Here, online is to be instituted to handle voting.
The online voting system ensures that each intended voter is checked whether he/she is registered or not. If he/she is not registered, the system refuses him/her from voting. It also checks whether he/she has voted for that particular election. This online voting system prevents a situation where a particular candidate seizes the cards and uses them to vote for himself/herself. Hence, the rigging associated with the manual voting system has been handled completely. The system also takes care of result calculation of each candidate in a particular election and the percentage scored in that election. This eliminates rigging associated with the calculation and counting of votes.
A means of showing the various outputs is also adopted by the system. The output can either be displayed on the screen or a hardcopy of it can be produced depending on the choice of the user. This prevents international and local typographical errors in showing the result of the elections.
With an online voting, votes can be cast only once. It will also afford people who are sick and unable to go to the polling stations to cast their votes, to do so. It should be noted, however, that an online voting will not replace the existing ballot forms, but is offered as a supplementary way of casting ballot.
1.2 Statement Of The Problems
The inefficiency of voting process in Enugu has resulted to a lot of problems. These problems have continued to obstruct the peace of democracy in Imo because the choice of a capable candidate is not encouraged by the current system.
These problems include:
- Single voter casting his vote multiple times.
- Inefficiency and inaccuracy of counting of votes by officials concerned.
- High rigging during election process.
- Illegal voters casting their votes.
- Long queues observed at poling stations.
- Loss of votes due to either wrong voting of the use of case of any accident occurring during transportation of the statement of result and other electoral materials to the collection centres.
1.3 Purpose Of Study
The purpose of this study is to design and implement an online voting system. The study will activate democracy and ensure that the popular choice emerges in any election conducted in Imo state.
1.4 Aims And Objectives
The main aim of this project t work is to design an online voting system which among others can be able to achieve the following targets;
- Nobody will have access to the votes before the official opening of the electronic ballot box.
- Each voter will be opportuned to vote only once.
- The secrecy of the votes will be guaranteed.
- The casting of votes cannot be interpreted, modified or diverted.
- The system will not accept any vote outside the voting period.
- Votes will be protected against any attempt of identified theft.
- Only registered voters will have access to the application.
- Rigging of the election will be controlled.
- Put to an end, the indiscriminate alteration of election result of any officer of the electoral commission of Enugu state.
1.5 Scope Of The Study
The study covers voting processes as it is done at the ward councillorship and local government chairmanship elections. It also inculcates the voters' personal records, candidates' personal records and voting procedures.
1.6 Limitation Of The Study
Due to the fact of Non-availability of the vital components required for the design and implementation of an online voting system. However, the immediate availability of components will help the researcher to achieve his/her objectives fully.
1.7 Definition Of Terms
Active server Page.
A vote recorded in an election.
A container in which voters drop their votes.
A material with which voters used to cast their votes.
A designated location where results are collected.
An electronic device that stores data, process data and produces result as information automatically under program control.
A system of government by all the people of a country, usually through representatives, whom they elect, thought of as allowing freedom of speech, religion and political opinion.
The art of choosing by voting one of the candidates for a position.
Enugu State Independent Electoral Commission.
The front door to a website, which normally contains links to other sites or pages.
Internet Information Service.
The process of voting in an election.
A centre or venue where voters cast their votes.
To manipulate election result in favour of another person.
Structured Query Language.
A card given to voters to ascertain that he/she has the right to vote.
A register containing the data of eligible voters completed by the election officials.
A location on the web that publishes some kinds of information.