This chapter presents the introduction to the study. It presents that theoretical background, statement of the problem, aim and objectives of the study, significance of the study, scope of the study, organization of the research and definition of terms.
The use of computer (information technology) in electric power monitoring and control is vastly gaining organization acceptance. The monitoring system starts from data collection (meter reading). Monitoring or inspection carried out to get meter reading from customers” homes transformer status at various locations, to fault detection, such as electric cable condition and soon. These monitoring processes are either manual or partially automated, and as such associated with errors which cause inaccuracy and unreliability. The computer aided monitoring devices eliminate errors due to human limitations, preserve data effectively and alleviate complaints from aggrieved customers.
1.1 Theoretical Background
There is a glaring need for the utilization of information Technology (IT) and computing potential in revolutionizing the nation’s mode of power management and principals. This will serve as a vehicle for the drive toward a fully automated or computerized power monitoring processes. It will also provide the needed solution to most of the challenges resulting from the existing system which is potentially computerized. In this study, the design of a computerized power monitoring system is offered to foster the drive toward the full computerization or automation of the processes in the power sector fact that the full automation of processes in the power sector is the best for our economy, as it calls for the development of computer experts in the sector.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Some problems associated with the existing partially computerized system are as follows:
- Delay of bill dispatching to customers
- Generation of accurate computed bills is below average.
- Ineffective power monitoring
- Low level of the security as files are easily misplace or taken away.
1.3 Aim and Objectives of the Study
The aim of the study is to develop a computerized electrical power distribution monitoring system. The following are the specific objectives:
- To design a system to aid in the recording of electrical bill of customers.
- To design a system that will be used to compute electrical power bills.
- To create a system that can be used to update the bill record of customers.
1.4 Significance of the Study
The successful implementation of this research project will show a computerized system that can be used to record and compute electricity power bills. The study will also serve as a useful reference material to other researchers seeking related information on the subject.
1.5 Scope of the Study
The scope of this project will cover the development and design of a database driven electrical power distribution information system to be utilized by the operators of the different electricity distribution company (EDE) power plant grid supplying electricity to the Nigerian community.
Inasmuch as this project is intended for use in state, community in Nigeria the focus of this research will be limited only to PHCN
1.6 Organization of the Research
This research work is organized into five chapters.
Chapter one is concerned with the introduction of the research study and it presents the preliminaries, theoretical background, statement of the problem, aim and objectives of the study, significance of the study, scope of the study, organization of the research and definition of terms.
Chapter two focuses on the literature review, the contributions of other scholars on the subject matter is discussed.
Chapter three is concerned with the system analysis and design. It presents the research methodology used in the development of the system, it analyzes the present system to identify the problems and provides information on the advantages and disadvantages of the proposed system. The system design is also presented in this chapter.
Chapter four presents the system implementation and documentation, the choice of programming language, analysis of modules, choice of programming language and system requirements for implementation.
Chapter five focuses on the summary, constraints of the study, conclusion and recommendations are provided in this chapter based on the study carried out.
1.7 Definition of Terms
Electricity is the science, engineering, technology and physical phenomena associated with the presence and flow of electric charges. Electricity gives a wide variety of well-known electrical effects, such as lightning, static electricity, electromagnetic induction and the flow of electrical current in an electrical wire. In addition, electricity permits the creation and reception of electromagnetic radiation such as radio waves.
An electrical grid is an interconnected network for delivering electricity from suppliers to consumers. It consists of three main components:
- Power stations that produce electricity from combustible fuels (coal, natural gas, biomass) or non-combustible fuels (wind, solar, nuclear, hydro power);
- Transmission lines that carry electricity from power plants to demand centers; and
- Transformers that reduce voltage so distribution lines carry power for final delivery.
A smart grid is an electrical grid that uses computers and other technology to gather and act on information, such as information about the behaviors of suppliers and consumers, in an automated fashion to improve the efficiency, reliability, economics, and sustainability of the production and distribution of electricity.