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Design and Implementation of a Computerized Patient Management System

Design and Implementation of a Computerized Patient Management System

Project / Seminar Material
Reference ID: PS-5071-TM

DEDICATION

This research material titled “Design and Implementation of a Computerized Patient Management System” is dedicated to God for his enabling grace, and to all computer enthusiasts who contributed to make life a pleasant experience during my research documentation.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I extend my sincere gratitude to all those who contributed to the completion of this project. Special thanks to my Supervisor (Name of your Supervisor), the Head of Department (Name of your HOD), the Lecturers in the department of Computer Science (CS), Book Authors and Profound Scholars of existing or related project material on “Design and Implementation of a Computerized Patient Management System” for their invaluable guidance, support, and expertise throughout the journey.

I am also grateful to your study area (mention any funding organizations, if applicable) for their financial assistance. This research would not have been possible without the encouragement and assistance of some stakeholders (mention any mentors, teachers, or colleagues). Additionally, I would like to acknowledge the understanding and patience of my family and friends during this endeavor. Your unwavering support has been a constant source of motivation. Thank you all for being part of this meaningful endeavor.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PRELIMINARY PAGES


CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION


    CHAPTER TWO

    LITERATURE REVIEW

    • 2.1 Introduction

    CHAPTER THREE

    SYSTEM ANALYSIS AND DESIGN

    • 3.1 Methodology Adopted
    • 3.1.1 Problem Identification Using SSADM
    • 3.2 Analysis of the Existing System
    • 3.2.1 Dataflow of the Existing System
    • 3.2.2 Disadvantages Of The Existing System
    • 3.2.3 Weakness of the existing System
    • 3.3 Feasibility Study
    • 3.3.1 Economic Feasibility
    • 3.3.2 Technical Feasibility
    • 3.3.3 Operational Feasibility
    • 3.4 Analysis of the Proposed System
    • 3.4.1 Data Flow Diagram of the Proposed System
    • 3.4.2 Advantages of the Proposed System
    • 3.4.3 Justification of the Proposed System
    • 3.5 Functional Requirements
    • 3.5.1 Use Case Diagram Of The Admin / User Privileges
    • 3.6 Data Requirements
    • 3.7 High Level Model of the Proposed System

    CHAPTER FOUR

    SYSTEM DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION

    • 4.1 Objectives of the Design
    • 4.2 Cohesion and Decomposition High level Model
    • 4.3 Control Center / Overall Dataflow Diagram
    • 4.3.1 Proposed System Operation Flowchart
    • 4.4 System Specification and Design
    • 4.4.1 Input and Output Specification
    • 4.4.2 Database Specification and Design
    • 4.4.3 Data Dictionary
    • 4.5 Choice and Justification of Programming Language
    • 4.6 Program Documentation
    • 4.7 Implementation Techniques
    • 4.7.1 System Testing
    • 4.8 Programming Module Specification
    • 4.8.1 Installation
    • 4.9 Computer Hardware Minimum Requirement
    • 4.10 Software Requirement
    • 4.11 Personnel / User Training
    • 4.12 File Maintenance Module

    CHAPTER FIVE

    SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

    • 5.1 Introduction
    • 5.2 Summary
    • 5.3 Conclusion
    • 5.4 Recommendation

    REFERENCES

    APPENDIX A - “SOURCE CODE”

    APPENDIX B - “OBJECT PROGRAM”

    ABSTRACT

    Computerized Patient Management is an information system that is used to record relevant information relating to the patients. The prescribe drugs, bought drugs, sold drugs and available drugs are processed by the program. The aim of this project is to design A Computerized Patient Management System. In achieving this aim, the following specific objectives were laid out as follows to develop an application software that will capture and store patients drug data for a teaching hospital, generate bills of each patient drug administered and execute a proper recording of patients' drugs and diagnosis result and keep track of list of patients' beds occupied and vacant. The motivation that led to the implementation of the proposed system is that the existing system lacks immediate retrievals of health related documents and the errors that arise as a result of manual calculation of health bills.

    The methodology adopted in this study is the structured system analysis and design methodology (SSADM) which is a technical approach for analyzing and designing an application or system by applying object throughout the software development process. The programming language used is HTML, CSS, JAVASCRIPT, PHP, SQL and JQUERY. The reason why web programming languages was used is because, it is platform independent and it is a web based application. The work will be beneficial to both the management and staffs within the hospital establishment as it makes patients management easier. It will enable the management to know the total number of patients and the payment made by patient as the software will keep tracks of all the patients' transactions with the hospital. It will ensure that patients are attended on time and a how a patient can get registered first, before the proper bill process. The expected result is A Computerized Patient Management System that will execute a proper recording of patients' drugs and diagnosis result and keep proper track of appointments made with the patient by the hospital.


    Design and Implementation of a Computerized Patient Management System

    CHAPTER ONE

    1.1 Introduction

    Computerized Patient Management is an information system that is used to record relevant information relating to the patients. Information tracking provides a relevant intelligence to decision making at the right time. One of the major activities in the medical data processing is the maintenance of patient's record. When a patient visits a particular hospital for the first time, a folder is prepared and an identification number known as the card member is issued to the patient. This number is peculiar to only that patient and any information on the patient is stored or accessed by searching out the hospital folder bearing that number. These tracking of information on patients are collects and stored away in their hospital folder. As these records increase with time, the hospital would have a collection known as the medical history of the patient. This medical history be very, voluminous, this makes it almost impossible to retrieve past records of the patients that have been stored away for long.

    Much of these information management system is been done by the record officers who collects information from different sections of the hospital and stores them away as expected. The record officers may be able to maintain these information but the process of retrieving and even storing is generally slow, time consuming and possibly tedious.

    As a prelude to other parts of this study, this chapter will discuss the background upon which this study was initiated, the statement of problems that led to this study, the Aim and Objectives of the study. Others are Significance of the study, Scope of work, Limitation of the study and Definition of technical terms.


    1.2 Background of the Study

    Historically, however, hospitals were often founded and funded by religious orders or charitable individuals and leaders. A hospital is an institution for health care that provides patient treatment by specialized staff and equipment. Usually, hospitals are funded by the public sector, by health organizations (for profit or nonprofit), health insurance companies or charities, including funds by direct charitable donations. Modern-day hospitals are largely staffed by professional physicians, surgeons, and nurses. Hospitals are distinguished by their ownership, scope of services, and whether they are teaching hospitals with academic affiliations. Hospitals may be operated as proprietary (for-profit) businesses, owned either by corporations or individuals such as the physicians or they may be voluntary-owned by non-profit corporations, religious organizations, or operated by federal, state, or city governments.

    The computer-based system has been designed to tackle some of the problems attached to information tracking while running a hospital. This is done basically by introducing certain data processing standards and information into the automated system to help govern and monitor the way the data and information is stored, accessed, used and retrieve. The processed information is stored in computer and they can be use of electric means. To prevent an epidemic outbreak within a region can only be provide a necessary statistics towards the number of death caused by a disease and the related solution, which can be used to tackle a disease. Information can be retrieved on a specific problem hence it is by electronic means.

    Computerized Patient's Information Tracking System of Annunciation Hospital shows various drugs that one can purchase. It records the available drugs, the sold drugs and the money collected from the sold drug. It involves database programming to keep track of the event of the system. The program is also implemented using web based programming languages. Depending on the drug and its desired effect, there are a variety of administration methods. Most drugs are administered orally that is, through the mouth. Only drugs that will not be destroyed by the digestive processes of the stomach or intestines can be given orally. Drugs can also be administered by injection into a vein (intravenously), which assures quick distribution through the bloodstream and a rapid effect; under the skin (subcutaneously) into the tissues, which results in localized action at a particular site as with local anesthetics; or into a muscle (intramuscularly), which enables rapid absorption through the many blood vessels found in muscles. An intramuscular injection may also be given as a depot preparation, in which the drug is combined with other substances so that it is slowly released into the blood.

    Most community hospitals offer emergency services as well as a range of inpatient and outpatient medical and surgical services. Community hospitals, where most people receive care, are typically small, with fifty to five hundred beds. These hospitals normally provide quality care for routine medical and surgical problems. Some community hospitals are nonprofit corporations, supported by local funding. These include hospitals supported by religious, cooperative, or osteopathic organizations.


    1.3 Statement of the Problem

    In the current system of operation in Teaching Hospital Nnewi, when a patient enters the hospital, the following sequence of operation is carried out. First, the patient is registered in the card/registration room, and then the patient goes to the nurses' workbench for examination (vital signs), the nurses then carries the patient folder to the doctors' workbench for diagnosis. After the diagnosis, the patient is then sent to the laboratory for test or the patient is sent to the pharmacy for collection of drugs; the pharmacy section checks the patients prescribed drugs and cost them before the folder is sent to the bill office for billing. After diagnosis the patient can also be referred to another clinic or to see a consultant in the same hospital. For example he/she may be referred for radiology services (CT scan, MRI, and ultrasound) or to special services like dental care. There may also be possibilities for surgical services. The inpatient may recover fully and be discharged or die and will be given a death report.

    These processes are tedious and full of man-made errors. The purpose of the hospital management system is to automate the system for easy storage and retrieval of data, smooth flow of information and management of hospital. Some errors identified in the current system include:

    1. Lack of immediate retrievals: The information is very difficult to retrieve and to find particular information like- E.g. - To find out about the patient's history, the user has to go through various registers. This results in in convenience and wastage of time
    2. Lack of immediate information storage: The information generated by various transactions takes time and efforts to be stored at right place
    • Lack of prompt updating: Various changes to information like patient details or immunization details of child are difficult to make as paper work is involved.
    1. Error prone manual calculation: Manual calculations are error prone and take a lot of time this may result in incorrect information, for example calculation of patient's bill based on various treatments.
    2. Preparation of accurate and prompt reports: This becomes a difficult task as information is difficult to collect from various register.

    1.4 Aim and Objectives of the Study

    The aim of this project is to design a Computerized Patient Management System. In achieving this aim, the following specific objectives were laid out as follows to develop an application software that will:

    1. Capture and store patients drug data for a teaching hospital
    2. Generate and manage bills of each patient drug administered
    3. Execute a proper recording of patients' drugs and diagnosis result.
    4. Keep proper track of appointments made with the patient by the hospital
    5. Keep track of list of patients' beds (Occupied and Vacant).

    1.5 Significance of the Study

    The work will be beneficial to both the management and staffs within the hospital establishment as it makes patients management easier. It will enable the management to know the total number of patients and the payment made by patient as the software will keep tracks of all the patients' transactions with the hospital. It will ensure that patients are attended on time and a how a patient can get registered first, before the proper bill process.

    With the growth in information technology, the study offers numerous values both to the film and to any hospital that deals on marketing of goods and items. Huge of files kept in the offices will no longer be there again because information will be stored on the computer with the help of the Computerized Patient Management System Because of the easy to use nature of the Computerized Patient Management System, any hospital can easily buy it to make use of them.

    This study will be of immense benefit to academic students and other researchers who intend to know more on this study and can also be used by non-researchers to build more on their research work. This study contributes to knowledge and could serve as a guide for other study.


    1.6 Scope of Study

    The scope of the research is focused on the Design and Implementation of a Computerized Patient Management System using Echochin Hospital 9th Mile Enugu as a case study.


    1.7 Limitation of the Study

    During the course of this study, many things militated against its completion, some of which are:

    1. Time Constraint: The time frame given to accomplish this project was very short due to school academic calendar and it was carried out under pressure which made the researcher not to implement some necessary features.
    2. Establishment Policies: Establishment policies posed a serious limitation as most staffs are not ready to release information needed for this project work. There were lots of information needed from the staffs of this institution to enhance the study which took them time to release or they did not release at all for security purposes, hence the scope was reduced.
    3. Research material: availability of research material is a major setback to the scope of the study.
    4. Frequent power failure: This made the researcher append more money on fuel to ensure sustainable power.
    5. Financial Constraint: Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

    1.8 Definition of Terms

    Medication:

    A medication is a substance that is taken in to or placed on the body that does one of the following things: most medications are used to cure disease or condition.

    Prescription:

    A prescription is a health-care program implemented by a physician or other qualified health care practitioner in the form of instructions that govern the plan of care for an individual patient.

    Symptom:

    A symptom is a departure from normal function or feeling which is apparent to a patient, reflecting the presence of an unusual state or of a disease.

    Administration:

    An administration is the act of giving a drug to somebody or a patient.

    CHAPTER TWO

    2.0 Literature Review

    2.1 Introduction

    This chapter focuses on the review of related literature. A literature review includes the current knowledge as well as theoretical and methodological contributions to a particular topic. It documents the state of the art with respect to the topic you are writing. It surveys the literature in the topic selected. In this research work the literature review includes the …

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