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Design and Implementation of an Online System of Electronic Voting

Design and Implementation of an Online System of Electronic Voting

Project / Seminar Material
Reference ID: PS-5287-TM


This research material titled “Design and Implementation of an Online System of Electronic Voting” is dedicated to God for his enabling grace, and to all computer enthusiasts who contributed to make life a pleasant experience during my research documentation.


I extend my sincere gratitude to all those who contributed to the completion of this project. Special thanks to my Supervisor (Name of your Supervisor), the Head of Department (Name of your HOD), the Lecturers in the department of Computer Science (CS), Book Authors and Profound Scholars of existing or related project material on “Design and Implementation of an Online System of Electronic Voting” for their invaluable guidance, support, and expertise throughout the journey.

I am also grateful to your study area (mention any funding organizations, if applicable) for their financial assistance. This research would not have been possible without the encouragement and assistance of some stakeholders (mention any mentors, teachers, or colleagues). Additionally, I would like to acknowledge the understanding and patience of my family and friends during this endeavor. Your unwavering support has been a constant source of motivation. Thank you all for being part of this meaningful endeavor.

Design and Implementation of an Online System of Electronic Voting





  • 1.1 Introduction
  • 1.2 Background of the Study
  • 1.3 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.4 Aim and Objectives of the Study
  • 1.5 Significance of the Study
  • 1.6 Scope of the Study
  • 1.7 Limitations of the study
  • 1.8 Operational Definition of Terms



  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.2.1 Benefits of E-voting
  • 2.2.2 Types of Voting System
  • 2.2.3 Paper-based Electronic Voting System
  • 2.2.4 Direct-Recording Electronic (DRE) Voting System
  • 2.2.5 Public Network DRE Voting System
  • 2.2.6 Online Voting
  • 2.2.7 Electronic Ballots
  • 2.2.8 Overview of Two-factor Authentication
  • 2.2.9 Authentication Factors
  • 2.2.10 Smart Card Technologies
  • The Smart Card Chip
  • 2.2.11 Types of Smart Cards
  • 2.2.12 Smart Card Reader
  • 2.2.13 Fingerprint Authentication System
  • 2.3 Conceptual Review
  • 2.3.1 E-voting
  • 2.4 Empirical Review
  • 2.5 Students’ Council Elections
  • 2.6 The Adoption Process of E-voting
  • 2.7 Web Portal
  • 2.7.1 Types Of Web Portals
  • 2.8 Database for Student Web Portals
  • 2.8.1 Merits of Integrating Databases in Web Applications



  • 3.1 Methodology Adopted
  • 3.1.1 Problem Identification Using SSADM
  • 3.2 Analysis of the Existing System
  • 3.2.1 Dataflow of the Existing System
  • 3.2.2 Disadvantages Of The Existing System
  • 3.2.3 Weakness of the existing System
  • 3.3 Analysis of the Proposed System
  • 3.3.1 Data Flow Diagram of the Proposed System
  • 3.3.2 Advantages of the Proposed System
  • 3.3.3 Justification of the Proposed System
  • 3.4 Functional Requirements
  • 3.4.1 Use Case Diagram of the Admin / User Privileges
  • 3.5 Data Requirements
  • 3.6 High Level Model of the Proposed System



  • 4.1 Objectives of the Design
  • 4.2 Cohesion and Decomposition High level Model
  • 4.3 Control Center / Overall Dataflow Diagram
  • 4.3.1 Proposed System Operation Flowchart
  • 4.4 System Specification and Design
  • 4.4.1 Input and Output Specification
  • 4.5 Choice and Justification of Programming Language
  • 4.6 Program Documentation
  • 4.7 Implementation Techniques
  • 4.8 Programming Module Specification
  • 4.8.1 Installation
  • 4.9 Computer Hardware Minimum Requirement
  • 4.10 Software Requirement
  • 4.11 Personnel / User Training



  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Summary
  • 5.3 Conclusion
  • 5.4 Recommendation





Online voting refers to the option of using electronic means to vote in referendums and elections. E-Voting is an election system that allows a voter to record his or her secure and secret ballot electronically. The inefficiency of voting process in Nigeria has resulted in a lot of problems. These problems have continued to obstruct the peace of democracy in Nigeria because the choice of a capable candidate is not encouraged by the current system. The aim of the study is to examine the Design and Implementation of Electronic Voting System using Federal College of Education Technical Omoku as a case study. In achieving this aim, the following specific objectives were set out to design and develop a software platforms for voter registration, election voting, real-time election results collation and monitoring and mostly for voters remote access to elections, design and develop an electronic device that incorporates smart card reader and fingerprints technology for voters accreditation, authentication and verification, design and develop an administration dashboard for the election administrators, and execute simulations and compare the results of the designed e-voting system and other voting systems. The methodology adopted in this study is the object oriented analysis and design methodology (OOADM) which is a technical approach for analyzing and designing an application or system by applying object throughout the software development process. The programming language used is HTML, CSS, JAVASCRIPT, PHP, SQL and JQUERY. The reason why web programming languages was used is because, it is platform independent and it is a web based application. When this work is completed using all the information and data at hand, with the retrieved one in respect of this research, it is expected to give an account of the Design and Implementation of Electronic Voting System using Federal College of Education Technical Omoku as a case study.

Design and Implementation of an Online System of Electronic Voting



1.1 Background of the Study

The federal republic of Nigeria comprises of 36 states, The federal capital territory (FCT), and 774 local government areas (LGAs). The country is located in west Africa and shares land borders with the republic of Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east and Niger in the north. The three largest ethnic groups in Nigeria are the Ibo, Hausa and Yoruba ethnic groups.

In Nigeria, General elections are conducted every four years, where a head of state the president and the national assembly representatives are elected. They are elected by the people. The national assembly has about 360 members representing various constituencies.

Most African electoral bodies with no exception to INEC, even with the advancements of technology, still use primitive paper based methods during voting; this system is characterized by manual form filling to chose leaders and transfer of information from manual data capture forms to computerized datasheets, this has led to a high number of mistakes making their way into the final votes count. The main advantage of the paper-based system is the ballot papers are easily humanly auditable. The disadvantages outweigh the advantages for instance printing of ballot papers is slow, expensive, inflexible, environmentally hostile and also literacy limitations and last-minute changes to the voter register are difficult to accommodate among others. Over the last few years some election observers have suggested the introduction of electronic voting at the state and federal levels. The online voting system mainly addresses the voting phase. Electronic voting process using the online voting system should be cheaper than the present paper-based system been used by the independent national electoral commission (INEC). Online voting is an electronic way of choosing leaders via a web-driven application. The advantage of online voting over the present manual system is that the voters have the choice of voting at their own free time and reduced congestion. It also minimizes on errors of vote counting. The individual votes are submitted in a database that can be queried to find out who the aspirants for a given post have the highest number of votes.

With the online voting system, a voter can use his/her voting right online without any difficulty. He/she has to register as a voter first before being authorized to vote. The registration should be done prior to the voting date to enable data updates on the database.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

The election process begins from voters registration. The method adopted during voters’ registration goes a long way to determine the freeness and fairness of the election. In Nigeria, the voting/registration process is very cumbersome. So many cases, missing data in the voter registration file have been reported. There
are also situations where unregistered voters flock to the polling station to participate in the voting process. Even after voting, malicious clerks and officers- in − charge of a polling station end up playing with the result figures.

1.3 Objectives of the Study

The aim of this project is to develop a database for voter’s registration which will, in turn, help the government to conduct a free and fair election using electronic machines. To replace the current inefficient manual system of voting in Nigeria. To ensure credibility in elections by preventing double voting, Help the government reduce the huge costs incurred in conducting elections.

1.4 Scope of the Study

The research work is designed to enable the National Electoral Commission to use an electronic devices to capture voter’s information. The design will cover some security issues like authenticating the nationality of the voters through integrating the national ID database to the voter’s registration process and also capturing the picture of the electorates for validation during the election.

1.5 Limitations

During the design of this project work, much finance was required and owing to the financial meltdown globally, the research was limited by finance and hence concentrated on the available materials within the locality.

1.6 Significance of the Study

In view of the rapid development of computer technology in virtually all fields of operation and its use in relation to information management, it has become important to look into the development of electronic voters registration system to enable the government to achieve the following:

  1. Conduct free and fair election
  2. Safeguard data and information in the system.
  3. The reduced workload in the process of conducting election
  4. Keep an accurate record of votes
  5. Reduce time wasted in announcing election result
  6. Eliminate disenfranchising electorates.

1.7 Project Report Organisation

This project was covered under five stages:

Chapter 1;

Deals with the introduction. The background of the project is discussed. The objectives of the project, its significance, scope, and constraints are pointed out.

Chapter 2;

This chapter is a Review of Voters Registration in Some Countries and the literature review.

Chapter 3;

Discusses system Investigation and Analysis. It deals with the detailed investigation and analysis of the existing system and problem identification.

Chapter 4;

Treats the system design and implementation

Chapter 5;

The summary and conclusion of the project are finally treated in this chapter.

1.8 Definition of Terms

Voting system:

Is a method by which voters make a choice between options, often in an election or on a policy referendum


also known as electronic voting is a term encompassing several different types of voting, embracing both electronic means of casting a vote and electronic means of counting votes.

Information System:

It is a collection of procedures, people, instructions and equipment to produce information in a useful form


It is the study of techniques or process of mobilizing resources (such as information) for accomplishing objectives that benefit man and his environment

Computer Network:

Is a system that connects two or more computers together using a communication link.


A systematically arranged collection of computer data, structured so that it can be automatically retrieved or manipulated. It is also called databank.


2.0 Literature Review

2.1 Introduction

This chapter focuses on the review of related literature. A literature review includes the current knowledge as well as theoretical and methodological contributions to a particular topic. It documents the state of the art with respect to the topic you are writing. It surveys the literature in the topic selected. In this research work the literature review includes the …

Summary Headlines for Design and Implementation of an Online System of Electronic Voting

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