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Design and Implementation of Online Diagnosis Prescription System for Breast and Prostate Cancer A Case Study of Federal Medical Centre Owerri

Design and Implementation of Online Diagnosis Prescription System for Breast and Prostate Cancer

Project / Seminar Material
Reference ID: PS-7-TM

DEDICATION

This research material titled “Design and Implementation of Online Diagnosis Prescription System for Breast and Prostate Cancer” is dedicated to God for his enabling grace, and to all computer enthusiasts who contributed to make life a pleasant experience during my research documentation.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I extend my sincere gratitude to all those who contributed to the completion of this project. Special thanks to my Supervisor (Name of your Supervisor), the Head of Department (Name of your HOD), the Lecturers in the department of Computer Science (CS), Book Authors and Profound Scholars of existing or related project material on “Design and Implementation of Online Diagnosis Prescription System for Breast and Prostate Cancer” for their invaluable guidance, support, and expertise throughout the journey.

I am also grateful to your study area (mention any funding organizations, if applicable) for their financial assistance. This research would not have been possible without the encouragement and assistance of some stakeholders (mention any mentors, teachers, or colleagues). Additionally, I would like to acknowledge the understanding and patience of my family and friends during this endeavor. Your unwavering support has been a constant source of motivation. Thank you all for being part of this meaningful endeavor.


Design and Implementation of Online Diagnosis Prescription System for Breast and Prostate Cancer (A Case Study of Federal Medical Centre, Owerri)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PRELIMINARY PAGES


CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • 1.1 Introduction
  • 1.2 Background of Study
  • 1.3 Statement of Problem
  • 1.4 Aim and Objectives of the Study
  • 1.5 Significance of Study
  • 1.6 Scope of Study
  • 1.7 Limitations of the Study
  • 1.8 Definition of Terms

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Conceptual Review of Medical Diagnosis
  • 2.2.1 Use of Medical Diagnosis
  • 2.2.2 Method of Diagnostic Procedure
  • 2.2.3 Errors in Diagnosis
  • 2.2.4 Causes of Errors in Diagnosis
  • 2.3 Theoretical Review of Expert System
  • 2.3.1 Types of Expert System
  • 2.3.2 Advantages of Expert System
  • 2.3.3 Disadvantages of Expert System
  • 2.4 Expert System in Medical Diagnosis
  • 2.5 Overview of Breast Cancer
  • 2.5.1 Symptoms of Breast Cancer
  • 2.5.2 Treatment of Breast Cancer
  • 2.6 Empirical Review

CHAPTER THREE

SYSTEM ANALYSIS AND DESIGN

  • 3.1 Methodology Adopted
  • 3.1.1 Problem Identification Using SSADM
  • 3.2 Analysis of the Existing System
  • 3.2.1 Dataflow of the Existing System
  • 3.2.2 Disadvantages of the Existing System
  • 3.2.3 Weakness of the existing System
  • 3.3 Analysis of the Proposed System
  • 3.3.1 Data Flow Diagram of the Proposed System
  • 3.3.2 Advantages of the Proposed System
  • 3.3.3 Justification of the Proposed System
  • 3.4 Functional Requirements
  • 3.4.1 Use Case Diagram of the Admin / User Privileges
  • 3.5 Data Requirements
  • 3.6 High Level Model of the Proposed System

CHAPTER FOUR

SYSTEM DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION

  • 4.1 Objectives of the Design
  • 4.2 Cohesion and Decomposition High level Model
  • 4.3 Control Center / Overall Dataflow Diagram
  • 4.3.1 Proposed System Operation Flowchart
  • 4.4 System Specification and Design
  • 4.4.1 Input and Output Specification
  • 4.4.2 Database Specification and Design
  • 4.4.3 Data Dictionary
  • 4.5 Choice and Justification of Programming Language
  • 4.6 Program Documentation
  • 4.7 Implementation Techniques
  • 4.8 Programming Module Specification
  • 4.8.1 Installation
  • 4.8.2 Security Design Specification
  • 4.8.3 System Architecture
  • 4.9 Computer Hardware Minimum Requirement
  • 4.10 Software Requirement
  • 4.11 Personnel / User Training
  • 4.12 Discussion of Findings

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, AND RECOMMENDATION

  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Summary
  • 5.3 Conclusion
  • 5.4 Recommendation

REFERENCES

APPENDIX A - “SOURCE CODE”

APPENDIX B - “OBJECT PROGRAM”

ABSTRACT

Breast cancer refers to a malignant tumor that has developed from cells in the breast. It is always caused by a genetic abnormality. The aim of this study is to Design and Implement an Expert System in Diagnosis and Treatment of Breast Cancer. In achieving this aim, the new system will accomplish the following objectives through the design of a system that will reduce the risks associated with self-medication, wrong and delayed diagnosis, help return the skills of an expert medical doctor in event of eventualities and Formulate an intelligence diagnosis system and easy diagnosis of breast cancer and Demonstrate the use of logic programmes as a logical tool for developing intelligent system.

The motivation that led to the implementation of the proposed system is that people die as a result of wrong self-medication or delayed diagnosis and some patients complain of not meeting the doctors when they visit the laboratory, hence, their illness becomes critical. The methodology adopted in this study is the structured system analysis and design methodology (SSADM) which is a technical approach for analyzing and designing an application or system by applying object throughout the software development process. The programming language used is HTML, CSS, JAVASCRIPT, PHP, SQL and JQUERY. The reason why web programming languages was used is because, it is platform independent and it is a web based application.

This system when completed and implemented will help allocate the stress of the doctors and other health personnel involved in analysis and prescription of cancer cases as some of the prescription will now be done by the new system when a patient fills in the correct information needed. The expected result is an Expert System in Diagnosis and Treatment of Breast Cancer that will reduces the risk of delayed diagnoses and self-medication which can degenerate the problem of the existing system.


Design and Implementation of Online Diagnosis Prescription System for Breast and Prostate Cancer (A Case Study of Federal Medical Centre, Owerri)

CHAPTER ONE

1.1 Introduction

Since the introduction of electronic devices into the medical world, the functions and operations of the medical world have been easy with most of the electronically device that are in place to assist the medical personnel in there diagnosis and analysis of patients in various medical illness. Now doctors and nurses or any medical personnel can now carry out a test on a patient and get the analysis from the device used in diagnosing the patience which are electronic apparatus or device, giving numerous advantages over the previous daces of manual means of diagnosing breast cancer and the need for the development of a system that can enhance diagnosis prescription.

As a prelude to other parts of this study, this chapter will discuss the background upon which this study was initiated, the statement of problems that led to this study, the Aim and Objectives of the study. Others are Significance of the study, Scope of work, Limitation of the study and Definition of technical terms.


1.2 Background of Study

Breast cancer was traced right back to ancient Egypt, with the earliest recorded case described on the 1600 BC Edwin Smith Papyrus. Because breast cancer is quite outwardly visible in its most advanced state (seldom reached today thanks to modern medicine) it frequently captured the vision and imagination of our ancestors enough for them to record it. In 2011, approximately 230,000 cases of invasive breast cancer were diagnosed among women in the United States. Although there is no cure for breast cancer, there is hope. October is Breast Cancer Awareness Month and in support of a cure, thousands of athletes come together at races and events like these. From group rides to road races, these events will inspire, educate, empower and help bring a cure a little closer.

Over the year the leading cause of death in women aged between 35-54 years is breast cancer and second to cardio vascular disease in order women (Logan 1975). Mortality and incidence rate vary throughout the world with England and wale making first and us fourteen developing countries like Nigeria not left. In fact and two leading cancer sites are breast and lung accounting for about 25% of all cancer such a common disease in women and 1 and 12 women is affected in the U.S and 1 Nigeria. However its not surprising that there exist and long list of potential risk factor these include nutrition Geography Ethic factor aging factor, age of first birth being breast disorder decrease parity, unopposed ovarian cycling menstrual experience lactation experience, viral hypothesis however hereditary and family history of breast cancer are now considered to be two most important risk factor majority of women now come to medical attention in developing countries than in developing countries consequences the current emphasis is on prevention and early diagnosis of breast cancer so as to minimizes the death rate cause by it.


1.3 Statement of Problem

The problems encountered by the existing system include the following:

  1. People die as a result of wrong self-medication or delayed diagnosis.
  2. A lot of people that visit the laboratory for diagnosis, experience shortage of finance as a result of wrong diagnosis.
  3. Some patients complain of not meeting the doctors when they visit the laboratory, hence, their illness becomes critical.

1.4 Aim and Objectives of the Study

The main aim of this study is to Design and Implement an Expert System in Diagnosis and Treatment of Breast Cancer. In achieving this aim, the new system will accomplish the following objectives through the design of a system that will:

  1. Reduce the risks associated with self-medication, wrong and delayed diagnosis.
  2. Reduce the stress and inconveniences experienced by potential patients and not meeting with the doctor on the days of visit.
  3. Help return the skills of an expert medical doctor in event of eventualities.
  4. Formulate an intelligence diagnosis system and easy diagnosis of breast cancer (dr cr)
  5. Demonstrate the use of logic programmes as a logical tool for developing intelligent system.

1.5 Significance of Study

With the growth in information technology, the study offers numerous benefits to the Federal Medical Centre and to any Medical Centre that deals on patient breast cancer diagnosis. This system when completed and implemented will help allocate the stress of the doctors and other health personnel involved in analysis and prescription of cancer cases as some of the prescription will now be done by the new system when a patient fills in the correct information needed. It also reduces the risk of delayed diagnoses and self-medication which can degenerate the problem.

Besides, the project report will help subsequent researchers who are interested in the topic or related topic as a reference material.


1.6 Scope of Study

This research work will concentrate on breast cancer detection, treatment and diagnosis system using Federal Medical Center (FMC) Owerri as a case study. The proposed system developed will only cover patient with symptoms for diagnosis and control solutions like drug control and supplement there will be room for diagnosing patient with various kind of symptoms with remedial solution and advice.


1.7 Limitations of the Study

During the course of this study, many things militated against its completion, some of which are:

  1. Time Constraint: The time frame given to accomplish this project was very short due to school academic calendar and it was carried out under pressure which made the researcher not to implement some necessary features.
  2. Establishment Policies: Establishment policies posed a serious limitation as most staffs are not ready to release information needed for this project work. There were lots of information needed from the staffs of this institution to enhance the study which took them time to release or they did not release at all for security purposes, hence the scope was reduced.
  3. Research material: availability of research material is a major setback to the scope of the study.
  4. Frequent power failure: This made the researcher append more money on fuel to ensure sustainable power.
  5. Financial Constraint: Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet).

1.8 Definition of Terms

Information System: It is a collection of procedures, people, Instructions and equipment to produce information in a useful form.

Technology: It is study of techniques or process of mobilizing Resource (such as information) for accomplishing objectives that benefits man and his environment.

Information: Information can be defined as the process of gathering, transmitting, receiving, storing and retrieving data or several items put together to convey a desired message.

Databases: A systematically arranged collection of computer data, structured so that it can be automatically retrieved or manipulated. It is also called databank.

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 Literature Review

2.1 Introduction

This chapter focuses on the review of related literature. A literature review includes the current knowledge as well as theoretical and methodological contributions to a particular topic. It documents the state of the art with respect to the topic you are writing. It surveys the literature in the topic selected. In this research work the literature review includes the …

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