The subject of airport passenger terminal building must involve a discussion of transportation.
Transportation has remained one of the most vital factors that influence the development of a nation. The credibility of this statement has been proven over the centuries, that if one decides to take a critical look at earlier civilizations, from the time of early Egyptian civilization to the current civilized world, one will discover that many of the great feats achieved during these civilizations would have been impossible without one form of transportation or the other.
By way of definition; transportation (or transport) is the movement of people, animals and goods from one location to another. Modes of transport include air, rail, road, water, cable, pipeline and space. The field can be divided into infrastructure, vehicles and operations. Transportation is important since it enables trade between people, which in turn establishes civilizations.
Transport infrastructure consists of the fixed installations necessary for transport, including roads, railways, airways, waterways, canals and pipelines and terminals such as airports, railway stations, bus stations, warehouses, trucking terminals, refueling depots (including fuelling docks and fuel stations) and seaports. Terminals may be used both for interchange of passengers and cargo and for maintenance.
Vehicles travelling on these networks may include automobiles, bicycles, buses, trains, trucks, people, helicopters and aircraft. Operations deal with the way the vehicles are operated, and the procedures set for this purpose including financing, legalities and policies. In the transport industry, operations and ownership of infrastructure can be either public or private, depending on the country and mode.
Transportation can be broadly classified under three broad groups thus:
- Land transportation;
- Water transportation;
- Air transportation.
Land transportation is the most common and dates back to the beginning of civilization. Land transportation can take various forms, which are dependent on the sophistication, stage of civilization and development, and on the technical stratum of the society in question. It can be by the use of animals (camels, mules, horses, dogs, etc.) or by use of machines such as wheelbarrows, carts, cars etc.
Similarly, water transportation dates back a long time as humanity can recall. Water transportation, as land transportation, has also been developed in complexity, technical superiority, and usage.
Air transportation has its origin in the 20th century. The superiority of air transport over the rest can be attributed the reason behind its progressive growth and preference as the safest modern mode of transportation.
1.2 Background of the Study
The airport terminal is a building at an airport where passengers transfer between ground transportation and the facilities that allow them to board and disembark from the aircraft. Within the terminal, passengers purchase tickets, transfer their luggage, and go through security. The buildings that provide access to the airplanes (via gates) are typically called concourse. However, the terms terminals and concourses are used interchangeably, depending on the configuration of the airport.
Smaller airports have one terminal while larger airports have several terminals and/or concourses. At small airports, the single terminal building typically serves all of the functions of a terminal and a concourse. Some larger airports have one terminal that is connected to multiple concourses via walkways, sky-bridges, or underground tunnels (such as Denver International Airport). Some larger airports have more than one terminal, each with one or more concourses (such as New York's John F. Kennedy Airport). Still other larger airports have multiple terminals each of which incorporates the functions of a concourse (such as Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport).
According to Frommers, most airport terminals are built in a plain style, with the concrete boxes of the 1960s and ‘70s generally gave way to glass boxes in the ‘90s and ‘00s, with the best terminals making a vague stab at incorporating ideas of light and air. However, some, such as:
Baghdad International Airport, are monumental in stature, while others are considered architectural masterpieces, such as Terminal 1 at Charles de Gaulle Airport near Paris or Terminal 5 at New York's John F. Kennedy Airport. A few are designed to reflect the culture of a particular area, some examples being the terminal at Albuquerque International Sunport in New Mexico, which is designed in the Pueblo Revival Style popularized by
Architect John Gaw Meem, as well as the one at Bahiasde Huatulco International Airport in Huatulco, Oaxaca, Mexico, which features some palapas that are interconnected to form the airport terminal building.
1.3 Statement of Problems
A functional airport passenger terminal is meant to ease the stress encountered by air passengers during the process of air travel. Therefore the architectural problem of the project is how best to provide an aesthetically pleasant, efficient, economical, bigger and more modern domestic airport passenger terminal, with good flexibility and expansion capabilities, to replace the outdated and small existing airport terminal at Makurdi for Airports Authority of Nigeria (AAN).
1.4 Aim and Objectives of Study
The primary aim of the study is to design a suitable passenger terminal building in the Makurdi Airport. In achieving this aim, the following objectives were considered;
- To ensure these facilities will streamline the productivity in the airport without interruption or interference from each other or any source;
- To provide a design that will adequately contain all the kinds of functions and activities associated with air travel to be carried out in the airport which will be expanded for this purpose.
- To situate the structure in an ideal location that easily catches eye sight from around the environment and can be easily accessible to staff, air travellers, as well as visitors;
- To consider the environmental consequences as far as they are not a detriment to the proposed development.
- To minimize costs by putting construction techniques, and employing materials within the level of technology that is commensurate with our national aspiration.
- To ensure flexibility and adaptability for future changes in use of facilities or space.
1.5 Scope of Study
This scope of this thesis is restricted to the passenger terminal building within the airport and NOT the entire airport as a whole. This is to say that the work involves the only the landside of the airport (and not the airside) which includes the terminal building and auxiliary (supporting) facilities within the landside premises.
1.6 Limitations of the Study
During the course of this study, many things militated against its completion, some of which are:
- Time Constraint: The time frame given to accomplish this project was very short due to school academic calendar and it was carried out under pressure which made the researcher not to implement some necessary features.
- Establishment Policies: Establishment policies posed a serious limitation as most staffs are not ready to release information needed for this project work. There were lots of information needed from the staffs of this institution to enhance the study which took them time to release or they did not release at all for security purposes, hence the scope was reduced.
1.7 Significance of Study
The passenger terminal building is chosen and located in the Makurdi Airport premises, which is a domestic airport in Makurdi, Benue State, for the following reasons:
- The existing terminal building on the site is small and outdated;
- Aviation prospects in the state of project location is terribly poor;
- The existing facility has no provision for future expansion.
- This research will help to contribute and extend the frontiers of knowledge in the academic development of aviation architecture. It also exposes all aspects of professional details and necessary techniques of scientific investigation in this field.
In other words, this guide provides the basic criteria to organize, evaluate, plan, programme and design airport terminal facilities. The information presented is intended to make researchers aware of important design considerations and to aid them in project development.
1.8 Definition of Terms
The Terminal Building: The structure located on the landside of the airport which is the interface between the airfield and the rest of the airport.
Amenities: That part of a terminal building housing convenience, service, and diversion facilities for the passengers, tenants, and public.