1.1 Background of the study
It is pertinent in this research that the word fraud be defined. The advance learner's dictionary defines fraud as criminal deception, act of this kind, person or thing that deceives”, on the other hand, fraud is defined by the auditing guidelines as a particular type of irregularity. According tot eh auditing guidelines this refers to irregularities involving the use of deceits to obtain an illegal or unjust advantage and may involve the following.
- Manipulation falsification or alteration of document
- Miss appropriation of assets.
- Suppressing or omitting transaction records
- Recording transactions without substance
- Miss appropriation of accounting policies.
Which every way one looks at it, fraud is an international distortion of financial statement for whatever purpose, the miss appropriation of assets, whether or not accompanied by distortion of financial statement.
Case of fraud are becoming a recurrent feature of fraud are becoming a recurrent feature of our financial system as recorded cases by banks and other financial institution continues to occupy a conspicuous position in the annual reports and account of Nigeria deposit insurance corporation (NDIC) . As a result, the issue of fraud has become a serious food for thought for many corporate bodies in recent times. Owing to this, much time is spent in the board meetings in an attempt to find solution to the persistent fraudulent practice among management and non management staff.
The frequency with which fraud occurs in any organization should not be over looked as it determines to great extent the survival and growth of that organization and if not properly checked can lead to corporate failure.
From the ongoing, the need to prevent and control fraud cannot be overemphasized. It has been noted that the prevention of fraud, error and comparable irregularities lies with in the province management supervision and other internal controls.
It could be said that board have not done enough in terms of printing a solid defense mechanism and administrative and internal control procedure as counter measure to ward of the persistent fraud cases in our financial system. The rate with which fraud is occurring in the Nigeria system is a sure indication of serious weakness in the internal control system.
It is in view of the foregoing, that this research study is being carried out. The study will find out among other things the important of an internal control system and the measure applied in such a system to prevent and to control fraud. The study is also embarked upon with a view to promote the setting of internal control system in organization.
1.2 Statement Of Problem
It is a fact that fraud has become a recognize institution in the national and international financial systems and fraudsters, through their affluence are well respected in the society. The implication of this is that boards are now faced with the arduous task of how to control minimized the incidence of fraud which has now become a cankerworm in the society. Owing to the fact that fraud posses a serious treat to corporate growth and existence, management must make effort to check and completely eradicate fraud as it seems , perhaps enough has not been done imputing up a solid defense, mechanism to check the problem.
In view of the unsatisfactory situation mentioned above, the problem to be dealt with in this research is as follows.
- Weakness in the internal control system of union bank o Nigeria plc, Afribank and Eco bank.
- Problem encountered in adopting defensive measure to prevent and control the incidence of fraud.
- The effect of internal control system of ht above banks.
The study will be based on conceptual clarification of internal control to enhance its implementation by organization and general awareness to corporate bodies. Also the study will analyze the problems, benefits and importance of internal control. Finally, it is worthy to note that the absence of a good internal control system would lead to assets not being safeguarded due to inaccurate records as well as non compliance with management policies.
1.3 Objective Of The Study
- To highlight the use and importance of a system of internal control in the sources of financial institution with particular emphasis on union banks Afribank and Eco bank Nigeria plc.
- Identifying problem which financial institution encounter in adopting a system of internal control.
- To see whether internally audits as a department for ensuring strict adherence to internal controls in organization is still in relevant function.
- To see whether there are lapse of weakness in internal control in operation of the above banks.
- To find out if there is a relationship between the existence of sound internal control and the prevention of the occurrence of fraud.
1.4 Research Questions
- What is fraud?
- How can internal control be a management to control and prevent fraud in the banking industry?
- Has there been any effect of fraud in the operation of banks and other financial institutions?
- What measures could be adopted to minimize and solve the problem of fraudulent activities with the banking sectors and other financial institutions.
1.5 Statement Of Hypothesis
The following hypothesis has been developed to meet the requirement of this research.
1) H0: The existence of sound internal control system in Fidelity banks does not enhance profitability.
H1: The existence of sound internal control system in Fidelity banks enhance profitability
2) H0: The segregation of duties in the bank does not ensure full compliance with internal control.
H1: The segregation of duties in the bank ensures full compliance with internal control.
1.6 Significance Of The Study
The long run trend for cooperation to evolve into organization of gigantic size and scope including a great variety of specialized technical operations and numbering employee has made it possible for management to exercise personal first hand supervision of operations.
Management no longer relies upon report which summarizes the current operations in the organization.
It keeps management informed as to whether the company's policies are complied with whether government regulations are being observed.
Internal control provides assurance to management dependability on the accounting data used in decision making and these decision made becomes company policy.
1.7 Scope Of The Study
This research is confined to internal control as means to prevent and control fraud in union bank Afribank and Ecobank Nigeria plc. The study will deal with the element of internal control in order to highlight the importance of a good internal control system in banks and other organization. This importance and that of internal audit as a means to prevent fraud will also be highlighted in the research to ensure that the system is well understood for strict adherence by management.
1.8 Limitation Of The Study
In this study, the course of carrying out this research encountered a lot of difficulties and was constrained in many areas among which are:
Data From Banks:
The problem of getting the managers, staff and customers of two banks to answer questions in the proposed questionnaire in many cases, information given by both banks and the ones from internet are not simplified. That is , the are very difficult to understand.
In the aspect of theoretical and practical of this work the researcher being a student had to apportion her time so as to carry out concurrently with other academic assignment.
The research was constrained by creating of materials and other expenses , however, in spite of the limitation . effort were made by the researcher to utilize the limited resources at her disposal to ensure that the work is successfully completed.
1.9 Definition Of Terms
Is an irregularities involving the use of criminal deception to obtain for instance an unjust or illegal advantage
It refers to a financial institution were money, money worth and other valuables are kept for safe custody.
3. Bank Services:
Simply refers to all such transactional obligations . such as acceptation deposit, etc which bank renders to customers
The use of machines to do work that was previously done by people or saved mental and manual labour example, the use of computer in banking services.
Is an individual or organization who transacts business with a bank or and financial institutions.
6. Strategic Management:
This is an art and science of formulating and evaluating cross functional decisions that enable the organization to achieve its objectives.
7. Nigeria Deposit Insurance Co-Operation (NDIC)
Nigeria deposits insurance cooperation is responsible for providing deposit insurance and other related services for banks.
8. Financial Assets:
These are claims against real (tangible asset) and investment which are commitment of the resources in securities (intangible assets) traded in organized money and capital market.
9. Internal Control:
these companies the plan of organization and all the co-ordinate method and measures adopted within to safeguard its assets.
10. Accounting Control:
these are the method and procedure use in an organization in safe guarding their asset and reliability of financial records.
11. Administrative Control:
these concerns mainly with operational efficiency and adherence to management policies.
12. Dual Control:
it is a security devices which underlines all internal banks safe guards.
13. Miss Appropriate:
it is an illegal adoption of money or property belonging to some one else.
a raw material input in the production of information.
it is an act of controlling and running of the activities of a business or an organization.
16. Chi Square:
a test of statistical significant which test one of how well your model of expected distribution for the observed distribution.
a guess or assumption about a certain problem, or set of circumstance reasonable supposition that may be night or wrong.
the state of being logical true.
it is an official examination of business and financial records to see that they are true and corrects.
an individual who is being paid for work done.