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Production and Fermentation of Alcohol From Palm Wine
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Production and Fermentation of Alcohol From Palm Wine

Project / Seminar Material
Reference ID: PS-315-TM

DEDICATION

This research work titled "Production and Fermentation of Alcohol From Palm Wine" is dedicated to God for his enabling grace and to all computer enthusiasts who help to make life a pleasant experience.



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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I owe my indebtedness to my Supervisor (Name of your Supervisor), the Head of Department (Name of your HOD), the Lecturers in the department of Chemical Engineering, Book Authors and Profound Scholars of existing/related research work for your moral support that facilitated the successful completion of my (Tertiary Institution level). I am grateful to God Almighty and my parent for their financial support in my career. I really appreciate you all for everything, Thank you very much.



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Production and Fermentation of Alcohol From Palm Wine

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Preliminary Pages

Chapter One

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background …

Chapter Two

Literature Review

  • 2.1 Introduction

Chapter Three

Materials and Methods

  • 3.1 Introduction

Chapter Four

Results and Discussion

  • 4.1 Introduction

Chapter Five

Summary, Conclusion, and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Summary
  • 5.3 Conclusion
  • 5.4 Recommendation

References




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ABSTRACT

This research work was arrived as the formulation and production of alcohol from the fermentation of palm wine. A fresh palm wine was ated which was obtained from Emene in Enugu State. The characteristics that was tested before and after fermentation were; specific gravity, refractive index and PH value of the fermentated palm wine was first determined, after which samples were formulated for fermentation. The yeast that was used in the course of fermentation process was the baker's yeast (sacchromycess Cerevisae). 10 samples of 400ml each of the palm wine were used for the fermentation process, with variations in their yeast content and days of fermentation. These were done under aerobic condition. After fermentation, the samples were respectively distilled after fermentation with their corresponding values of; specific gravity, % by volume % by weight concentration and density of the distillates determined and recorded respectively. Further more, the distillates obtained were separated and added together accordingly to be re — distilled. Thus, their corresponding values of % by volume, % by weight, specific gravity of the re — distilled products were determined and recorded accordingly. From the result obtained, it shows that the minimum volume of alcohol obtained is 27.52% while the standard volume of alcohol required is 37% minimum.




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Production and Fermentation of Alcohol From Palm Wine

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 Introduction
1.1 Background Of The Study
The manufacture of alcohol by fermentation has been known since amtignity, the main purpose being the preparation of alcoholic beverages like beer, wine etc, the raw material is palm wine and any feed stuffy rich in carbohydrates, e.g wheat, barley, cassava, grapes, yams, apple, corn, rich, potates, banana and plantains. Palm wine is made from the gap at the raffia palm or the oil palm which contain fermentable carbohydrate in solution. It owes its white appearance to a suspension of yeast. It's fermentation therefore does not require the addition of yeast from an outside source.
Fermentation is in fact very rapid at ordinary te4mperaturein tropical countries with the production of alcohol and acids, especially ethanoic (i.e acetic) acid and large quantities of carbon dioxide. Because of the large volume of carbon dioxide released during fermentation, fresh palm wine cannot be kept nor transported in sealed containers. Fresh palm wine is sweet, because of the high content of in fermented sugar, It is consequently low in alcoholic content and hence only very neatly intoxicating (Santiago, 2014). On standing, however, fermentation proceeds rapidly, as a result of which the wine rapidly loses its' sweet taste due to a fall in the sugar content, it also becomes more sour and more intoxicating owing to a rise in the alcoholic. Content. When fully fermented, it is very sour and strongly alcoholic.
The alcohol produced here is of course mainly ethanol. However, the strides of fermentation using the production and characterization of alcohol from fermentated palm wine are necessary to form an understanding of any fermentation process. In the beginning the only source for ethanol was from fermented starch or sugar, but later it was discovered that ethanol could be produced from the crude oil. In the 20th century the production of ethanol from fermentation nearly disappeared when the crude oil became relatively cheaper. But now it seems that this development has stopped and clock is now again moving backwards, faster and faster to the original source of ethanol which is from fermented starch or sugar (Ouoba, 2012).
Many fermentation processes are in direct competition with strictly chemical synthesis. Alcohol, acetones, butyl alcohol and acetic acid produced by fermentation have largely been superceded by their synthetic counterparts. Almost all major anti — biotic are obtained from fermentation process. Dextrin is another fermentation product. The micro biological production of vitamins has also becomes economically important. Thus, alcohol being the major product of fermentation has contributed a lot in technological advancement. The use of alcohol in motor vehicles is not a new technology. When the first “otto motor” was produced, it was designed and constructed to use ethanol as fuel. In countries like Brazil, the ethanol served as fuel. In fact it has been used continuously since the twenties, though in some years in many small amount. But even in the United States of America ethanol plants were operated during the second word war to produce motor fuel and explosive for the Army. Now the crude oil prices are increasing with an unknown speed this more or less for gotten technology is awakening (Dalibard, 2016).

1.2 Objective Of The Study
The aim of this research work is to produce alcohol of high quality from fermentation of palm wine. Both natural and industrial yeasts will be used for the fermentation process. It is believer that a pure and high quality of ethyl alcohol will be produced having its same physical, chemical and characteristics properties. This research work will be of help in knowing the days of fermentation and quantity of ye4ast to be added using palm wine as a source of material. Unemployment can be reduced by being creative, more espe3cially in making use of this research work.

1.3 Scope Of The Study
The production of alcohol involves the use of palm wine, raphia wine and oil palm. The wine to be used is palm wine. The yeast to be used is industrial saccharomyces cerevisae (baker's yeast), which helps to facilitate fermentation process. The characteristics to be tested before and after fermentation includes, PH, specific gravity, temperature, volatility etc. This work will not cover some areas due to material, time and financial constraints. Areas t6hat would not be covered include; blending of alcohol by the use of additive, colour ants and flavou4r; bottling of the product, labeling, corking of the product and pasteurization method etc. This research work will be restricted to the use of palm wine only, other and sources of carbohydrate such as cassava, potatoes, sugar cane could not be covered.

1.4 Significance Of The Study
The significance or important of alcohol cuts across many sectors of our economy and it is used industries and domestically in the following ways:
a) Ethanol is an important solvent used to dissolve resins, varnishes , lacquer, soap, perfumes, dyes, druges and flavouring extract.
b) Ethyl alcohol is a raw material used in the manufacture of many important compound such as ethanol, ethyl ester, halides, ettoxy — ettane and trichoroethanol (chloral).
c) Ethyl alcohol is used as a fuel, either by itself mixed with petrol in racing cars and in rockets. Because of its low freeze in automobile radiators. Finally, ethanol alcohol is present in many alcoholic beverages such as beers, wines and spirits.

1.5 Limitation Of The Study
One of the major problems encountered by the researcher is the monetary problem. There was no sufficient money to make the purchasing of all necessary materials for the research work. There was also the problem of meeting some personalities to get information from them. Because of that, the researcher found it difficult to collect all the necessary information. Time on the other hand was a big limitation as the researcher has other lectures to attend alongside the project report.

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 Literature Review

2.1 Introduction

This chapter focuses on the review of related literature. A literature review includes the current knowledge as well as theoretical and methodological contributions to a particular topic. It documents the state of the art with respect to the topic you are writing. It surveys the literature in the topic selected. In this research work the literature review includes the …

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Proposal Writing Format under Chemical Engineering


Production and Fermentation of Alcohol From Palm Wine is a proposal topic for final year research work, which comprises the major and elective project proposal writing sections for Production and Fermentation of Alcohol From Palm Wine research work.

Major Sections
  • Motivation for Embarking on the Project

  • Brief Background of Study

  • Statement of Problems

  • Aim of the Study

  • Specific Objectives of the Study

  • Significance of the Study (Who benefits from the project and how?)

Elective Sections
  • Relevant Research Questions

  • Relevant Research Hypotheses


Defense Procedure for Chemical Engineering Researchers


Know your Project / Seminar Work (Production and Fermentation of Alcohol From Palm Wine): Here are the key point to study if your work is cumbersome or not.

  • Abstract

CHAPTER ONE

  • Motivation / Statement of Problems
  • Aims & Objective of Study
  • Scope of Study
  • Significance of Study

CHAPTER TWO

  • State two or more citation from your review of related literature.

CHAPTER THREE

  • Know the methodologies, tools and techniques used.

CHAPTER FOUR

  • Justification of your work and things to adhered to before using the system or research work.

CHAPTER FIVE

  • Conclusion and Recommendation

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