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Tax Management and Revenue Generation A Case Study of Anambra State

Tax Management and Revenue Generation (A Case Study of Anambra State)

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Reference ID: PS-37-TM

DEDICATION

This research material titled “Tax Management and Revenue Generation” is dedicated to God for his enabling grace, and to all computer enthusiasts who contributed to make life a pleasant experience during my research documentation.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I extend my sincere gratitude to all those who contributed to the completion of this project. Special thanks to my Supervisor (Name of your Supervisor), the Head of Department (Name of your HOD), the Lecturers in the department of Computer Science (CS), Book Authors and Profound Scholars of existing or related project material on “Tax Management and Revenue Generation” for their invaluable guidance, support, and expertise throughout the journey.

I am also grateful to your study area (mention any funding organizations, if applicable) for their financial assistance. This research would not have been possible without the encouragement and assistance of some stakeholders (mention any mentors, teachers, or colleagues). Additionally, I would like to acknowledge the understanding and patience of my family and friends during this endeavor. Your unwavering support has been a constant source of motivation. Thank you all for being part of this meaningful endeavor.


Tax Management and Revenue Generation (A Case Study of Anambra State)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PRELIMINARY PAGES


CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Aim and Objectives of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Significance of the Study
  • 1.6 Scope of the Study
  • 1.7 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.8 Definition of Terms

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 History of Orumba-South L.G.A
  • 2.3 Concept of Taxation
  • 2.3.1 Types of Taxation
  • 2.4 Statutory Tax Laws in Nigeria
  • 2.5 Tax Administration in Nigeria
  • 2.6 Sources of Generating Revenue
  • 2.7 Cannons of Taxation
  • 2.8 The Purpose of Taxation
  • 2.9 Tax System
  • 2.10 Structure of Tariff
  • 2.11 Tariff Authorities
  • 2.11.1 Composition of the Board

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Research Design
  • 3.3 Population of Study
  • 3.4 Sampling Technique
  • 3.5 Research Instrument
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Questionnaire
  • 3.8.1 Interview
  • 3.8.2 Key Informants Interview
  • 3.8.3 Observation
  • 3.9 Statistical Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR

PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA

  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Presentation and Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Discussion of Findings

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Summary
  • 5.3 Conclusion
  • 5.4 Recommendation

REFERENCES

APPENDIX A - “QUESTIONNAIRE”

ABSTRACT

This study was set to determine the impact of good tax management on revenue generation in Anambra State, using Orumba south Local Government Area as the area of study. The study was necessitated by the increasing financial burden on the government at levels occasioned by the surging need to provide social services and infrastructural development for the governed. To accomplish the objective of the study, the researcher has reviewed the opinions of established authorities on the subject matter of study. Well- structured questionnaires were used to elicit information from respondents forming the sample of study. Data were collected using questionnaire and were analyzed using frequency tables and percentages. The analysis result revealed that; the tax system is designed and formulated to facilitate generation of revenue, tax system is planned to prevent evasion and avoidance of tax by citizens, in spite of the high demand for social services and infrastructural development, tax payers still avoid tax, and tax management in Orumba south L.G.A is effective and has resulted to increased generation of tax revenue. On the basis of the above findings, the researcher recommends that; the citizens should be sensitized on the need to pay their taxes as a civic responsibility, tax personnel should be persons of proven character, and Government should ensure stricter enforcement of existing tax laws to ensure compliance.


Tax Management and Revenue Generation (A Case Study of Anambra State)

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

The prime objective of every government is to maintain law and order, to provide and maintain basic essential services without which the community will be unimaginable and which by their nature cannot be left appropriately in the hands of private entrepreneurs. Such services include Internal Law and Order, Maintenance of National defense, provision of good healthcare system, educational system, transportation system, agricultural system etc. To cover the cost of providing these goods and services for the public good, government must generate financial and adequate revenues. The quest to governing meaningful financial resources has often led government to designing and administering some efficient and effective revenue generation systems. Primarily the main source of government revenue includes the following:

  1. Taxation on citizens
  2. Taxation on income of companies
  3. Borrowing

Amongst these sources, taxation (the demand made by the government of a country for a compulsory payment of money by the citizens of that country.) remains the most outstanding. This may be due to it being a civic responsibility that must be performed by the citizens of the state. As a non-penal by compulsory transfer of resources from the private sector, taxation must be levied on the basis of equity, certainty, convenience, economy and productivity. Unfortunately, taxes are not paid in exchange for specific things but are collected for the sake of public welfare and interest.

Government often uses various kinds of taxations to generate the required revenues. For instance, direct taxes which include personal income tax, often applied on employees, sole traders, partnership, capital gain tax on companies, individual and non- co-operate entities, capital transfer tax (applicable asset transferred from one person to another), purchase tax, petroleum profit tax, and company income tax has constituted a significant source of revenue to the government. Similarly, indirect tax, e.g. stamp duties, custom duties, industrial training fund, toll paid on federal highways, will have often enhanced government revenues.

The administration of tax in Nigeria is in the hands of three relevant tax authorities viz:

  1. The joint Tax Board
  2. The federal Board of Inland Revenue
  3. The various state Board of Internal Revenue

In Nigeria, persons liable to pay income tax include men, women, married or single, trustees and executors, families, villages and indigenous communities. Though government can also raise funds through natural resources such as oil, palm oil, coal and gas which are exported, those alternative sources of income to government are hardly enough to shoulder the burden of government expenditures, especially in the area of economic and social spheres in each year, hence the need for tax payment.

We must emphasize here that income Tax Law must be interpreted in strict- to- sensor. There is no equity in tax law. The tax payer must be brought within the letter of the law and rigid adherence is the rule. Nothing should be read in and nothing should be implied. The onus of bringing a tax payer into the tax net is on the revenue or assessment authority. Another important point to note is that tax is not imposed on person or individual. Section 4 (1) of ITMA 1961 states that “the tax shall subject to the provisions of this act, being payable for each year of assessment upon income accruing in derived form, brought or received in Nigeria. Studies have shown that in Nigeria, workers pay more than the rich people who invest in various proper ties such as building, transporters, etc as a result of ineffective administration of taxes. Yet those investors are the category of people who would want government to move mountains in terms of raising their socio-economic well being, without meaningfully contributing towards the funds.

Now that our various government are gearing efforts to revamping over bettered economy and improving the living condition of Nigerians, the need for the evolvement of more effective strategies to ensuring regular tax payment by taxable individuals need not be overemphasized. Taxable adults and organizations in various sectors of the economy must discharge their civic responsibilities. Unfortunately, this can only be achieved if tax systems are effectively administered so that people would in government revenue generation, willingly and without grudges pay their taxes. This will result to improvement in government revenue generation, hence the basis for this research study.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

In developed societies, taxation is a sure, steady and main source of funds for social and economic development. This is because citizens of these societies are voluntarily committed to it. But in developing countries such as Nigeria, majority of the self employed people dread any mention of income tax. They see tax collection as nuisance in their life. Some take to their heels once a tax collector is sighted. In some case, they engage in physical combat with tax collectors.

Those who summon courage to pay, underpay their tax liabilities by resulting to false declaration of their income, yet absence of well audited financial statements to enhance proper assessment often compound the situation. Most traders, salaried persons are companies are guilty of this evil act. They device the means of evading appropriate payments by swearing false affidavits in a bid to collecting much tax- free income. This trend of event has often resulted to loss of tax revenues, which would have aided government in financing its expenditure. For instance, studies have shown that in 1986, then Imo state realized 73% of its total revenue projection from taxation for that year. In that same trend, the 1987 account of the state revealed a short fall of tax revenue of about 19.42% from three year's projected tax income to government.

In the light of these monumental failures on the part of government to meet its responsibility of providing adequate economic and social infrastructures to make life worthy of living, the researcher has beamed his search light on the management aspect of taxation in Anambra state, using Orumba south L.G.A as the case study. By determining the effect of tax management on revenue generation, the researcher hopes to contribute meaningful in assisting government improve the generation of its tax revenue. Several studies have been conducted on taxation and tax management, but none of these studies has been based on Orumba south L.G.A of Anambra state. The researcher's ability to do this constitutes the point of departure from others.


1.3 Aim and Objectives of the Study

The aim of the study is to examine the Tax Management and Revenue Generation using Anambra State as a case study. In achieving this aim, the following objectives were set out as follows:

  1. Determine whether tax administration in the state is effective enough to enhance the generation of adequate tax revenue.
  2. Expose the lapses inherent in the management of tax systems in the state so that, corrective step can be taken by those concerned with tax administration
  3. Determine whether the lapses in the management of tax systems are responsible for power tax revenue generation.
  4. Recommend appropriate ways of tax management that will enable the governed appreciate tax payment as necessary burden which all taxable adults should voluntarily bear.

1.4 Research Questions

In accomplishing the objective of this research study answers would be provided to the following research questions:

  • Can effective and efficient tax management result to increased generation of tax revenue?
  • Is government's inadequacy in the provision of social amenities attributable to default in tax payment?
  • Are these well- developed statutory systems by which taxation is regulated in Nigeria?
  • Are the existing tax laws in Nigeria effective enough to enhance the generation of adequate tax revenue?
  • Do the tax laws provide enough authority for prosecuting tax defaulters?
  • Do Nigerians see tax payment as a civic duty?
  • Why do Nigerians avoid tax payment?

1.5 Significance of the Study

In this research study, the researcher would through the review of related literature, establish a theoretical frame work of what effective tax management is all about. Such frame work if judiciously followed, will enhance generation of adequate tax revenue which has often eluded government. The significance of the study therefore is that;

  1. Those charged with the responsibility of generating tax revenue will have the opportunity to appraise the system of tax administration in use by them vis-Ã -vis the established framework. They could compare their system with that provided in the study so that necessary adjustment can be made to restraining the effectiveness of this system. The report will also provide various measures to be adopted in combating task evasion and avoidance in Anambra state so that tax revenue to government can be enhanced.
  2. The study will be useful to students of financial studies e.g. Accountancy, Banking and Finance, Economics, Business education and member of the Nigerian taxation (N. I. T) apart from constituting a source of secondary data for scholars wishing to carry on research studies in tax management, the report will also form the basis upon which further studies on our topic of study can be advanced.

1.6 Scope of the Study

This research study was conducted to determine the impact of good tax management on revenue generation in Anambra state using Orumba south L.G.A as the area of study. The result of the study will reflect the circumstances in terms of the subject matter of study will reflect the circumstances in terms of the subject matter of study in Orumba south and will only be generalized to cover other Local Government areas in Anambra State, having similar structures, infrastructural status and operation under the influence of similar environmental variables as Orumba South Local Government Area.


1.7 Limitation of the Study

During the course of this study, many things militated against its completion, some of which are:

  1. Time: Due to unavailability of time, as we had to combine both research and lectures, the study was limited. Also lack of resources was a limitation to the study.
  2. Distance: Finance is one of the major problems encountered during the research of this study. This was in terms of transport fair and typing the questionnaire.
  3. Extraction of useful information: This was another problem encountered the respondents were busy with their worker and pay less attention to the questionnaire for their opinion.
  4. Finance: Finance is one of the major problems encountered during the research of this study. This was terms of transport fair and typing the questionnaire.

1.8 Definition of Terms

  • Tax: This is a compulsory levy imposed on taxable individuals by the government and corporate citizens of a country.
  • Personal Income Tax: This is tax on income of individuals.
  • Direct Taxes: These are taxes in which the incidence falls directly on the tax payer.
  • Tax Avoidance: This involves utilizing the lapses in the tax system to ensure a reduced tax liability.
  • Tax Evasion: This is a deliberate and unlawful means of reducing the tax liability of a person.
  • The Income Tax Management Act (ITMA): This contains the provisions that govern the administration of personal income tax.
  • Tax Revenue: Income generated by government from collection of tax levies.
  • Income Tax: This is concerned with taxes on income of companies and taxable person
  • Tax System: Method of collection and administration of the tax.
  • Taxable Adult: Any adult carrying out business profession or vocation and generate income.

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 Literature Review

2.1 Introduction

This chapter focuses on the review of related literature. A literature review includes the current knowledge as well as theoretical and methodological contributions to a particular topic. It documents the state of the art with respect to the topic you are writing. It surveys the literature in the topic selected. In this research work the literature review includes the …

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