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The Economic Effects of Fuel Scarcity in Nigeria

The Economic Effects of Fuel Scarcity in Nigeria

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Reference ID: PS-125-TM


This research material titled “The Economic Effects of Fuel Scarcity in Nigeria” is dedicated to God for his enabling grace, and to all computer enthusiasts who contributed to make life a pleasant experience during my research documentation.


I extend my sincere gratitude to all those who contributed to the completion of this project. Special thanks to my Supervisor (Name of your Supervisor), the Head of Department (Name of your HOD), the Lecturers in the department of Accountancy / Accounting, Book Authors and Profound Scholars of existing or related project material on “The Economic Effects of Fuel Scarcity in Nigeria” for their invaluable guidance, support, and expertise throughout the journey.

I am also grateful to your study area (mention any funding organizations, if applicable) for their financial assistance. This research would not have been possible without the encouragement and assistance of some stakeholders (mention any mentors, teachers, or colleagues). Additionally, I would like to acknowledge the understanding and patience of my family and friends during this endeavor. Your unwavering support has been a constant source of motivation. Thank you all for being part of this meaningful endeavor.

The Economic Effects of Fuel Scarcity in Nigeria




  • 1.0 Introduction
  • 1.1 An Overview of the study
  • 1.2 Statement of problem
  • 1.3 Objective of study
  • 1.4 Significance of the study
  • 1.5 Scope of study
  • 1.6 Limitation of study
  • 1.7 Definition of terms


  • Review of related literature
  • 2.0 History of oil industry in Nigeria (NNPC)
  • 2.1 Nigerian's Development and oil industry
  • 2.2 Contribution of the petroleum industry to Nigerian's economic development (positive and Negative effect)
  • 2.3 NNPC and distribution of fuel in Nigeria
  • 2.4 Problems of fuel distribution in Nigeria
  • 2.5 Economic effects of fuel scarcity in Nigeria
  • 2.6 The role of task-force on the management of fuel scarcity


  • 2.0 Summary of findings
  • 3.1 Conclusion
  • 3.2 Recommendation



This research is based on effects of fuel scarcity in Nigeria the research was carried out to find out the extent to which the entire population in Owerri metropolis has suffered due to fuel scarcity.

The population used for the study is the workers of NNPC , car owners, businessmen and women and the entire population. The researcher used primary and secondary data which comprised of interviews and questionnaire to get information.

From the data analysis the researcher came up with the following findings:

  1. The middlemen contribute to fuel scarcity
  2. Transportation become high because of fuel scarcity
  3. Fuel scarcity has led to rise in price of products in the market

Based on the findings, the researcher recommends that;

  1. The government should hurry up with the maintenance of the broken down refineries in order to ease the problem of fuel scarcity.
  2. In order to avoid fuel scarcity, escorts should be assigned to each tanker driver to avoid diverting of fuel to unapproved areas.
  3. Pipeline that led to the various depot should be checked regularly for any possibility of leakage.
  4. They should provide storage facilities so that even if brake down occur, there will still available fuel to distribute to their various consumers.
  5. If fuel are being supplied to filling station owners, they should be checked to make sure that the fuel are sold to the consumer to avoid hoarding.

The Economic Effects of Fuel Scarcity in Nigeria


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

In the past Nigerians solely depended on the exportation of agricultural product for their source of income. This continued until the discovery of the presence of the presence of oil in our country especially in Port Harcourt. This made them (Nigerians) to divert from agriculture to the exportation of oil to other countries, which was actually fetching the much money even till this present time.

There are many subsidiary oil companies scattered all over the country but the biggest among them is in port Harcourt and is called the Nigeria National Petroleum Company (NNPC). It is from here that crude oil is extracted from the ground refined to get those components like fuel, kerosene and gas. There are depots scattered all over the country like shell port Harcourt, NNPC imo, E.P Oil company, Warri pipeline are directed towards these oil companies to facilities distribution. Tanker drivers and other dealers will load from the depot and distribute the filling stations, then the consumers will be from the filling stations.

Fuel supply has been moving smoothly in the country before the announcement of the budget by the budget by the head of state in January last four year 1999. it was in February 1999 that the whole issue of fuel scarcity started. This has made it difficult for the government to accomplish that which it proposed to do in the budget.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

The word “scarcity” means when there is insufficiency of something since there is insufficiency of fuel it is termed as fuel scarcity.

In the past, there has not been any service of fuel scarcity. Everything was moving smoothly, the industrialist both public and privates, does not have any problem. Economically the price of goods and services, were affordable by the people. Car owners can just go to filling station and buy fuel at a normal price of N22 per liter and with much ease. Things were moving smoothly in the country and in this part of Owerri metropolis until 1994 when we had one case of fuel scarcity not until on up till the movement of the study.

Because of fuel scarcity, people are so desperate to buy fuel for their business. For this reasons, whenever any information was passes concerning the presence of fuel in any filling station, car —owners will go there and queue up. Some of them will have to sleep in the filling stations a day or more than two days while waiting for their turn. People or car owners when they cannot buy fuel in any filling station, are forced to buy from the black market at an exorbitant price. Some people use big gallons to buy fuel that will serves them for some days.

For the reason that there is insufficient fuel in the filling station, makes people sell fuel in ration so that everybody present will buy. The car owners who think the fuel will not reach them will start jumping the queue thereby causing fights among themselves. Because of this reason, the filling station owners invite soldiers so that there will be peace and orderly queue in the filling stations. Fuel scarcity are sometimes artificial in the sense that during the Christmas period. Filling station owners will just hoard their fuel in order to sell at high price.

1.3 Objective of the Study

The study has the following objectives:

  1. To find out the causes of fuel scarcity
  2. To recommend what can be done to solve the problem of fuel scarcity
  3. To find out how the fuel scarcity has affected the businessmen and women, civil servant etc.

1.4 Significance of the Study

This study will be benefit to the Nigeria National Petroleum Company (NNPC) who is not the sole cause of fuel scarcity. The study will help them to find out these people or those things that contribute to fuel scarcity and take drastic measure to combat them.

This study or research will be of immense benefit to the government because if there is fuel scarcity, if then means that crude oil is also insufficient by this, the government will not have enough oil to transport in order to get foreign exchange.

This study will also be of great benefit to car owners and business because if the fuel scarcity is rectified ad resolved all business will start improving and progressing.

From the study, the rural drivers will find it easy to transport their farm product from the rural area to urban zones because the cost fuel will be on a lower side.

Also from those research work, I will be kind of encouragement. In that when the cost fuel is low, the cost of transportation will be also low, and these can lead to low price of commodity been transported.

1.5 Scope of the Study

The study is carried out to study the operation of the Nigeria National Petroleum company (NNPC) and the middlemen. The study is only based on petrol alone and not for kerosene or gas- generally.

1.6 Limitation of Study

The research work is limited to fuel scarcity in Nigeria with a case study which was carried out purely as an academic exercise and therefore could neither receive any financial support from the government or any private enterprise. The limited financial resource of the researcher is thus a major handicap and thereby resulted in limiting the study. Time factor also provide a major constraint.

1.7 Definition of Term


Change produced by an action or cause.


Mineral resources that provide nuclear or internal energy requirement.


Something not bee enough that is difficult to obtain and much less than is needed.


A place where fuel or oil being stored or a warehouse of anything


Trader who passes goods from the produces or from the place where they are produce to the final consumer or final buyer.


2.0 Literature Review

2.1 Introduction

This chapter focuses on the review of related literature. A literature review includes the current knowledge as well as theoretical and methodological contributions to a particular topic. It documents the state of the art with respect to the topic you are writing. It surveys the literature in the topic selected. In this research work the literature review includes the …

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