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Comparative Studies of Serum Calcium Level in Geriatric Men

Comparative Studies of Serum Calcium Level in Geriatric Men

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Reference ID: PS-286-TM

DEDICATION

This research material titled “Comparative Studies of Serum Calcium Level in Geriatric Men” is dedicated to God for his enabling grace, and to all computer enthusiasts who contributed to make life a pleasant experience during my research documentation.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I extend my sincere gratitude to all those who contributed to the completion of this project. Special thanks to my Supervisor (Name of your Supervisor), the Head of Department (Name of your HOD), the Lecturers in the department of Biochemistry, Book Authors and Profound Scholars of existing or related project material on “Comparative Studies of Serum Calcium Level in Geriatric Men” for their invaluable guidance, support, and expertise throughout the journey.

I am also grateful to your study area (mention any funding organizations, if applicable) for their financial assistance. This research would not have been possible without the encouragement and assistance of some stakeholders (mention any mentors, teachers, or colleagues). Additionally, I would like to acknowledge the understanding and patience of my family and friends during this endeavor. Your unwavering support has been a constant source of motivation. Thank you all for being part of this meaningful endeavor.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PRELIMINARY PAGES


CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION


    CHAPTER TWO

    LITERATURE REVIEW

    • 2.1 Introduction

    CHAPTER THREE

    MATERIALS AND METHODS

    • 3.1 Introduction

    CHAPTER FOUR

    RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

    • 4.1 Introduction
    • 4.2 Results
    • 4.3 Discussion of Findings

    CHAPTER FIVE

    SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

    • 5.1 Introduction
    • 5.2 Summary
    • 5.3 Conclusion
    • 5.4 Recommendation

    REFERENCES

    ABSTRACT

    Calcium is the most important mineral in the body. The body needs calcium for normal functioning of nerves and muscles including the most important muscles of all which is the heart. Calcium is also important for healthy bones and teeth. The amount of calcium in the blood is carefully controlled by the body's hormonal systems.

    The body gets calcium from diary products, some vegetables (such as broccoli), and some fortified foods. Calcium can also be obtained from taken pills containing calcium. Most of the body's calcium is stored in the bones and only small amount is found in the blood (serum). Calcium is maintained within a fairly narrow range from 8.5 to 10.5mg/dl (4.3 to 5.3meq/l or 2.2 to 2.7mmol/l).

    The estimation of serum calcium level is fraught with possible errors. Several means of contamination might lead to false elevations of serum calcium concentration. Before the test is carried out, one does not need to fast or limit ones activity before the test. Rather certain medicine/drugs needed to be avoided before the test, because they might affect the test result. The result of the experiment can be calculated, since the differences in serum calcium is significance with the age differences. Those with the age bracket (50 years & above) have lesser serum calcium level than those in the range of 20 to 30 years.


    Comparative Studies of Serum Calcium Level in Geriatric Men

    CHAPTER ONE

    1.0 Introduction

    Serum Calcium level in Geriatric men is the most common mineral in the body and one of the most important elements. The body needs it to build and fix bones and teeth, help nerves work, make muscles squeeze together, help blood clot, and help the heart to work. Almost all of the calcium in the body is stored in the bone. The rest is found in the blood.

    Normally the level of calcium in the blood is carefully controlled. When blood calcium levels get low (hypocalcemia), the bones release calcium to bring it back to a normal blood level. When blood calcium levels get high (hypercalcemia), the extra calcium is stored in the bones or passed out of the body in urine and stool.

    The of serum calcium level appears to be associated with blood pressure and metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular disease.

    The amount of calcium in the body depends on the amount of :

    1. Dietary Calcium.
    2. Calcium and vitamin D absorb by intestines.
    3. Phosphate in the body.
    4. Certain hormones including parathyroid hormone, calcitonin and estrogen in the body.

    Vitamin D; these hormones help control the amount of calcium in the body. They also control the amount of calcium absorbed from food and the amount passed from the body in urine and stool. The blood levels of phosphate are closely linked to calcium levels and they work in opposite ways:As blood calcium levels get high, phosphate levels get low, and the opposite is also true.

    1.1 Aim and Objectives of Study

    The aim of the study is to carry out a comparative study of Serum Calcium Level in Geriatric Men. In achieving this aim, the following specific objectives were laid out as follows:

    1. To compare the values obtained with age group 20 to 30 years; and
    2. To determine the serum calcium levels in geriatric men aged 50 years and above.

    CHAPTER TWO

    2.0 Literature Review

    2.1 Introduction

    This chapter focuses on the review of related literature. A literature review includes the current knowledge as well as theoretical and methodological contributions to a particular topic. It documents the state of the art with respect to the topic you are writing. It surveys the literature in the topic selected. In this research work the literature review includes the …

    Summary Headlines for Comparative Studies of Serum Calcium Level in Geriatric Men



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