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An Assessment of Health Social and Economic Challenges of Household Recently Affected by Flooding in the FCT

An Assessment of Health, Social and Economic Challenges of Household Recently Affected by Flooding

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Reference ID: PS-25665-TM

DEDICATION

This research work titled "An Assessment of Health, Social and Economic Challenges of Household Recently Affected by Flooding in the FCT" is dedicated to God for his enabling grace and to all computer enthusiasts who help to make life a pleasant experience.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I owe my indebtedness to my Supervisor (Name of your Supervisor), the Head of Department (Name of your HOD), the Lecturers in the department of Economics, Book Authors and Profound Scholars of existing/related research material for your moral support that facilitated the successful completion of my (Tertiary Institution level). I am grateful to God Almighty and my parent for their financial support in my career. I really appreciate you all for everything, Thank you very much.

ABSTRACT

Flooding is an environmental hazard that needs appropriate measures to be instituted to stem the tide of occurrence. Flooding causes inundation and harm to plants and animals, including man, buildings and infrastructure. The study was carried out to assess the health, social and economic challenges of household recently affected by flooding in the FCT. In achieving this aim, the following specific objectives were laid out to appraise flooding with specific reference to it causes and effects on the area under study and investigate the factors that influences the adaption of these mechanisms to recover from the floods in the area under study. Investigation revealed that flooding affects numerous aspects of man’s environment. These include his economic activities; settlements and lifestyle. Several threats to livelihoods ranging from the physical threats to social and economic threats exists, while affected persons suffer some psychological effects. The research design used in this report is descriptive design, utilizing questionnaire method to obtain information from the respondents for this project. Primary data were collected from the primary source which questionnaire was used as an instrument of data collection while secondary data were sources from textbooks, journals, newspapers and the internet were employed. The data were presented on a frequency distribution table and analyzed using simple percentage, while hypothesis was tested using chi-square test. This relevance of the study will provide evidence about how residents of flood-prone informal settlements perceive flood risk and how the exposures to perennial flooding impact their health. Based on the findings, it is recommended that the government should ensure that environmental management policies are properly enforced in the country. Also, development control activities should be taken seriously to avoid the erection of developments on flood plains and flood prone areas.


An Assessment of Health, Social and Economic Challenges of Household Recently Affected by Flooding in the FCT

CHAPTER ONE

1.1 Introduction

Flooding is an environmental hazard that needs appropriate measures to be instituted to stem the tide of occurrence. Flooding causes inundation and harm to plants and animals, including man, buildings and infrastructure (Ujene and Oguike, 2020). However, flooding is a global natural hazard that has affected lives, led to the loss of properties and extinction of species in the environment. In fact, flooding is a threat that affects the quality of the environment. Floods affect the households according to their vulnerability and capacity to deal with these shocks. The National Erosion and Flood Control Action Plan Committee (2005) defined flooding as a condition which exists when discharge of a river or stream cannot be accommodated within the margin of its normal channels so that waters spread over adjoining land (Macmillan, 2009).

As a prelude to other parts of this study, this chapter will discuss the background upon which this study was initiated, the statement of problems that led to this study, the Aim and Objectives of the study. Others are Significance of the study, Scope of work, Research hypothesis and questions, Limitations of the Study and Definition of technical terms.


1.2 Background of Study

In recent decades, flooding has led to the loss of thousands of lives and properties. According to available studies, flooding in Nigeria is caused by weak implementation of planning policies, streams and channel obstruction due to indiscriminate waste disposal habits and human activities in flood plains (Ituenet al., 2014; Ekpoh, 2015; Udoh, 2015 and Evan et al., 2017; Abraham et al., 2021). Generally, flood is an overflowing or eruption of a great body of water over land not usually submerged (Daniel and Udo, 2019). It is an extreme weather event naturally caused by rising global temperature which results in heavy down pour, thermal expansion of the ocean and glacier melt, which in turn result in rise in sea level, thereby causing water to inundate coastal lands. Flooding causes inundation and harm to plants and animals, including man, buildings and infrastructure (Ujene and Oguike, 2020). However, flooding is a global natural hazard that has affected lives, led to the loss of properties and extinction of species in the environment.

In fact, flooding is a threat that affects the quality of the environment. Given the issues relating to flooding, it is regarded as a factor that is used in defining environmental quality of residential neighbourhoods. Other environment hazards include drought, desert encroachment, soil erosion and tsunamis. Flooding and its impacts have been a major concern to farmers, engineers, economists, among others thus, forming headlines in the world and Nigerian dailies. Flooding has a wide range of influence on the interactions between man and his social, economic environment. Similarly, the Nile River was regarded due to its annual cycle of flooding, and farming was of great significance to many early farming cultures in Egypt. Flooding, which deposits rich fertile alluvium on agricultural areas, also replenish irrigation channels.

Ologunorisa (2004) and Efe (2007) distinguished between river flooding, coastal flooding and urban flooding as the major types of flooding. River flooding occurs where a river bursts or overtops its banks and inundates the areas around it. It is more common than coastal flooding. Coastal flooding results when heavy storms or extreme weather conditions combined with high tides cause sea levels to rise above normal, force sea water to the land and cause coastal flooding. Urban flooding happens in a relatively short period of time and can inundate an area with several metres of water.

Specifically, flooding has affected the lives, properties and sustainability of the environment as noted in available studies. Notably, flooding being a natural hazard has negative implications not only on the environment but also from the economic point of view. For instance, flooding affect housing, roads and other physical structures making such areas not to be attractive to residents. In spite of the foregoing, literature that are aimed at analyzing the causes and implications of flooding are inadequate.

Therefore, in FCT Abuja where the research was carried out, the activities that was conducted is to assess the health, social and economic challenges of household recently affected by flooding.


1.3 Statement of Problems

Investigation revealed that flooding affects numerous aspects of man’s environment. These include his economic activities; settlements and lifestyle. Several threats to livelihoods ranging from the physical threats to social and economic threats exists, while affected persons suffer some psychological effects. Flooding also causes land pollution which leads to epidemics and infections.

Flooding affects numerous aspects of man’s environment. These include his economic activities; settlements and lifestyle. A lot of social and emotional costs were involved in flooded areas. These costs include: displacement from homes, the loss of personal valuables and the ongoing fear and insecurity caused by the experience. Portable water supplies were contaminated and lost during periods of flood.

Also, the school system was disrupted as communication and personal mobility proved difficult. Although, most people complained of the adverse impact caused by flooding, some people rejoiced during flooding and prayed because of the gains usually made from the affected persons.


1.4 Aim and Objectives of Study

The aim of the study is to assess the health, social and economic challenges of household recently affected by flooding in the FCT. In achieving this aim, the following specific objectives were laid out as follows:

  1. To appraise flooding with specific reference to it causes and effects on the area under study;
  2. To examine the effects of flood disaster on socio-economic activities of residents in the area under study;
  3. To understand the coping mechanism adopted by households in the area under study; and
  4. To investigate the factors that influences the adaption of these mechanisms to recover from the floods in the area under study.

1.5 Research Questions

The study came up with research questions so as to be able to ascertain the above stated objectives. The specific research questions for the study are stated below as follows:

  • What are the causes and effects of flooding in the area under study?
  • What are the effects of flood disaster on socio-economic activities of residents in the area under study?
  • What is the mechanism adopted by households towards coping with flood in the area under study?
  • What are the factors that influence the adaption of these mechanisms to recover from the floods in the area under study?

1.6 Research Hypothesis

In order to pursue the objective of this study, the following generalized statements have been designed to guide and aids in obtaining the result for the experiment to be conducted. For this work, the null hypothesis will be represented with H0 while the alternative hypothesis will be represented with hypothesis H1.

Hypothesis One

  • H0: There are no significant factors that influence the adaption of these mechanisms to recover from the floods in the area under study
  • H1: There are significant factors that influence the adaption of these mechanisms to recover from the floods in the area under study

1.7 Significance of Study

This relevance of the study will provide evidence about how residents of flood-prone informal settlements perceive flood risk and how the exposures to perennial flooding impact their health. The paper augments existing knowledge of flood risk in poor urban neighborhoods of developing countries. Reducing flood risk and averting its health consequences in flood prone informal settlements require empowering and supporting those living in these areas with ability to initiate long-term adaptation measures and creating awareness about future risks.

This study will be of immense benefit to other researchers who intend to know more on this study and can also be used by non-researchers to build more on their research work. This study contributes to knowledge and could serve as a guide for other study.


1.8 Scope of Study

The scope of the research is focused on the Assessment of Health, Social and Economic Challenges of Household Recently Affected by Flooding in the FCT Abuja.


1.9 Limitations of the Study

During the course of this study, many things militated against its completion, some of which are:

  1. Time Constraint: The time frame given to accomplish this project was very short due to school academic calendar and it was carried out under pressure which made the researcher not to implement some necessary features.
  2. Establishment Policies: Establishment policies posed a serious limitation as most staffs are not ready to release information needed for this project work. There were lots of information needed from the staffs of this establishment to enhance the study which took them time to release or they did not release at all for security purposes, hence the scope was reduced.
  3. Research material: availability of research material is a major setback to the scope of the study.
  4. Frequent power failure: This made the researcher append more money on fuel to ensure sustainable power.
  5. Financial Constraint: Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

1.10 Definition of Terms

Flood: It is an overflowing or eruption of a great body of water over land not usually submerged (Daniel and Udo, 2019).

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 Literature Review

2.1 Introduction

This chapter focuses on the review of related literature. A literature review includes the current knowledge as well as theoretical and methodological contributions to a particular topic. It documents the state of the art with respect to the topic you are writing. It surveys the literature in the topic selected. In this research work the literature review includes the …

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