Since the introduction of electronic devices into the medical world, the functions and operations of the medical world have been easy with most of the electronically device that are in place to assist the medical personnel in there diagnosis and analysis of patients in various medical illness. Now doctors and nurses or any medical personnel can now carry out a test on a patient and get the analysis from the device used in diagnosing the patience which are electronic apparatus or device, giving numerous advantages over the previous daces of manual means of diagnosing breast and prostate cancer. Hence the need for the development of a system that can enhance diagnosis prescription.As a prelude to other parts of this study, this chapter will discuss the background upon which this study was initiated, the statement of problems that led to this study, the Aim and Objectives of the study. Other are Significance of the study, Scope of work, Limitations of the Study and Definition of technical terms.
1.2 Background of the Study
Breast cancer was traced right back to ancient Egypt, with the earliest recorded case described on the 1600 BC Edwin Smith Papyrus. Because breast cancer is quite outwardly visible in its most advanced state (seldom reached today thanks to modern medicine) it frequently captured the vision and imagination of our ancestors enough for them to record it. In 2011, approximately 230,000 cases of invasive breast cancer were diagnosed among women in the United States. Although there is no cure for breast cancer, there is hope. October is Breast Cancer Awareness Month and in support of a cure, thousands of athletes come together at races and events like these. From group rides to road races, these events will inspire, educate, empower and help bring a cure a little closer.
Prostate cancer is the development of cancer in the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system. Most prostate cancers are slow growing; however, some grow relatively quickly. The cancer cells may spread from the prostate to other area of the body, particularly the bones and lymph nodes. It may initially cause no symptoms.In later stages; it can lead to difficulty urinating, blood in the urine or pain in the pelvis, back, or when urinating. A disease known as benign prostatic hyperplasia may produce similar symptoms. Other late symptoms may include feeling tired due to low levels of red blood cells.
Prostate cancer screening is controversial Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing increases cancer detection, but it is controversial regarding whether it improves outcomes. Informed decision making is recommended when it comes to screening among those 55 to 69 years old. Testing, if carried out, is more reasonable in those with a longer life expectancy. Supplementation with vitamins or minerals does not appear to affect the risk.In Federal Medical Centre Owerri, the process of diagnosing illnesses generally begins with the patient registering and opening of folder where the patient's history will be recorded.
After that the patient's body such as mass index, undergoes general blood pressure and temperature test. Thereafter, the patient consults with the doctor for necessary prescription including recommending the type of test to ascertain. This whole process have the following challenges; long queues of patients waiting to consult with the doctors not minding the critical health of the patient that need immediate attention. Also there is delay from the doctor as a result of fatigue which made them often time decide to rest or close for the day, which may require the patient meeting the doctors on time or on that day. There are situation where the doctor misplace a patient file due to large volume of patient files been handled there by causing delay of the patient to be diagnosed.
It is against the background that the research decides to embark on this project work with the aim of design a system that will eliminate some of the identified challenges.The new system will provide an online (Internet Based) service for diagnosis would be a contribution to hospital management system. This project is aimed at reducing the drawbacks associated with diagnosing a patient.
1.3 Statement of the Problem
The problems encountered by the existing system include the following:
- People die as a result of wrong self-medication or delayed diagnosis.
- A lot of people that visit the laboratory for diagnosis, experience shortage of finance as a result of wrong diagnosis.
- Some patients complain of not meeting the doctors when they visit the laboratory, hence, their illness becomes critical.
1.4 Aim and Objectives of Study
The main aim of this study is to design and implement an online diagnosis prescription system for breast and prostate cancer. In achieving this aim, the new system will accomplish the following objectives through the design of a system that will;
- Reduce the risks associated with self-medication, wrong and delayed diagnosis.
- Reduce the stress and inconveniences experienced by potential patients and not meeting with the doctor on the days of visit.
- Help return the skills of an expert medical doctor in event of eventualities.
1.5 Significance of the Study
With the growth in information technology, the study offers numerous benefits to the Federal Medical Centre and to any Medical Centre that deals on patient breast and prostate diagnosis.
This system when completed and implemented will help allocate the stress of the doctors and other health personnel involved in analysis and prescription of cancer cases as some of the prescription will now be done by the new system when a patient fills in the correct information needed.
It also reduces the risk of delayed diagnoses and self-medication which can degenerate the problem.Besides, the project report will help subsequent researchers who are interested in the topic or related topic as a reference material.
1.6 Scope of the Study
This research work will concentrate on breast and prostate cancer detection, prescription and diagnosis system using Federal Medical Center (FMC) Owerri as a case study. The proposed system developed will only cover patient with symptoms for diagnosis and control solutions like drug control and supplement there will be room for diagnosing patient with various kind of symptoms with remedial solution and advice.
1.7 Limitation of Study
A research of this magnitude cannot be carried out without experiencing some difficulties. This work is not an exception, the following factors posed serious limitation to the research work.
- Time Constraint: The time frame given to accomplish this project was very short due to school academic calendar and it was carried out under pressure which made the researcher not to implement some necessary features.
- Cost: There were inadequate finance as a student which affected my research on this study, the problem became more complex coupled with the financial involvement of every research as the available funds from parents were barely enough, which limited the researcher from fully implementing certain aspects of the system.
- Establishment Policies: Establishment policies posed a serious limitation as most staffs are not ready to release information needed for this project work. There were lots of information needed from the staffs of this institution to enhance the study which took them time to release or did not release at all for security purposes, hence some features intended were not added.
1.8 Definition of Terms
Information System: It is a collection of procedures, people, Instructions and equipment to produce information in a useful form.
Technology: It is study of techniques or process of mobilizing Resource (such as information) for accomplishing objectives that benefits man and his environment.
Information: Information can be defined as the process of gathering, transmitting, receiving, storing and retrieving data or several items put together to convey a desired message.
Database: A systematically arranged collection of computer data, structured so that it can be automatically retrieved or manipulated. It is also called databank.
CADx: Computer-Aided Diagnosis
CADe: Computer-Aided Detection
Virus: Is a small infectious agent that replicated only inside the living cells of other organisms.
Primate: Is any mammal of the group that includes the lemurs, Lories, tarsiers, monkeys, apes and humans
Symptoms: Is the sign given when a particular thing want to happen
Vaccines: Are things you do to keep something away or to prevent a disease.
Diagnosis: The act or process of identifying or determining the nature and cause of a disease injury through evaluation, examination review of a patient laboratory data
PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction): is a biochemical technology in molecular biology use to amplify a single copy or a few copy of a piece of DNA across several orders of magnitude, generating thousands to millions of copies of particular DNA sequence.