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ChiSquare Test of Independence of Students Performance in UME and PostUME

Chi-Square Test of Independence of Students' Performance in UME and Post-UME

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Reference ID: PS-7839-TM

DEDICATION

This research work titled "Chi-Square Test of Independence of Students’ Performance in UME and Post-UME" is dedicated to God for his enabling grace and to all computer enthusiasts who help to make life a pleasant experience.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I owe my indebtedness to my Supervisor (Name of your Supervisor), the Head of Department (Name of your HOD), the Lecturers in the department of Economics, Book Authors and Profound Scholars of existing/related research material for your moral support that facilitated the successful completion of my (Tertiary Institution level). I am grateful to God Almighty and my parent for their financial support in my career. I really appreciate you all for everything, Thank you very much.


Chi-Square Test of Independence of Students’ Performance in UME and Post-UME

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PRELIMINARY PAGES


CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of Problems
  • 1.3 Objectives of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitations of the study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.2.1 Student Performance
  • 2.2.2 Chi-squared Test
  • 2.3 Chi-Square Test of Independence
  • 2.3.1 Common Uses
  • 2.3.2 Data Requirements
  • 2.3.3 Hypotheses
  • 2.3.4 Test Statistic
  • 2.4 Using Chi-Square Statistic in Research
  • 2.5 Concept of Academic Achievement
  • 2.6 Factors Influencing Academic Achievement

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Research Design
  • 3.3 Population of Study
  • 3.4 Sampling Technique
  • 3.5 Research Instrument
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Questionnaire
  • 3.8.1 Interview
  • 3.8.2 Key Informants Interview
  • 3.8.3 Observation
  • 3.9 Statistical Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Presentation and Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Test of Hypothesis 1
  • 4.4 Test of Hypothesis 2
  • 4.5 Discussion

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation

REFERENCES

APPENDIX A - “Questionnaire Administration”

ABSTRACT

Chi-square test of goodness of fit provides a means for deciding whether a particular theoretical probability such as the binomial distribution is a close approximation to a sample frequency distribution. This procedure provides test for the equality of more than two population proportions. Both X2 tests furnish a conclusion on whether a set of observed frequencies differs so greatly from a set of theoretical frequencies that the hypothesis under which theoretical frequencies were derived should be rejected. Investigation reveals the following problem of the Chi-square test of independence of students' performance in UTM and Post-UTM research work; lack of proper test of students' independent ability in carrying out a study, improper investigation of students with the use of chi-square tests and its application to real life problems, insufficient information relating to students' understanding with respect to decision making process, and incorrect administration of hypothesis testing on the basis of sample data and make a statistical inference. The following are the specific objectives of the Chi-square test of independence of students' performance in UTM and Post-UTM research work to; test students' ability in carrying out a study independently, show students the use of chi-square tests and its application to real life problems, help students understand the process involves in decision making, and assist students to understand hypothesis testing on the basis of sample data and make a statistical inference. This study is highly significant to students in mathematics, social and management sciences and all other managerial discipline or field of understanding the nitty-gritty of the process involved in decision making using chi-square independence tests.


Chi-Square Test of Independence of Students’ Performance in UME and Post-UME

CHAPTER ONE


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

The Federal Government in the year 2005 through the former Minister of Education, Mrs. Chinwe Obaji, introduced the policy of post-UME (University Matriculation Examination) screening by Universities. This policy mandated all tertiary institutions to carry out the task of further screening candidates after their UME result before giving admission. According to Obaji, candidates with a score of 200 and above will be short-listed by Jamb and their names and scores sent to their universities of choice which should then do or undertake another screening test in form of aptitude tests, oral interview or even another examination. Obaji measured the success of her policy by coming on national television to show cases of students who had scored 280 and above but could not score 20% in the post-UME screening. According to her, these students must have been engaged in cheating during Jamb examination and so could not pass post-UME screening because there was no room for them to cheat or be impersonated.

Based on this policy of then Minister of Education, the former Vice-Chancellor, Prof. E.A.C. Nwanze implemented the policy by introducing the university post-UME screening. Since then, the policy has been highly effective in the university. 200 scores and above remain the benchmark of sitting for the screening exercise.

Chi-square test provides the basis for judging whether more than two population proportions may be considered to be equal. Chi-square test is discussed by considering two aspects, such as chi-square goodness-of-fit and chi-square test of independence.

Chi-square test of goodness of fit provides a means for deciding whether a particular theoretical probability such as the binomial distribution is a close approximation to a sample frequency distribution, while test of independence constitutes a method for deciding whether the hypothesis of independence between different variables is tenable. This procedure provides test for the equality of more than two population proportions. Both X2 tests furnish a conclusion on whether a set of observed frequencies differs so greatly from a set of theoretical frequencies that the hypothesis under which theoretical frequencies were derived should be rejected.


1.2 Statement of Problems

Investigation reveals the following problem of the Chi-square test of independence of students' performance in UTM and Post-UTM research work;

  1. Lack of proper test of students’ independent ability in carrying out a study.
  2. Improper investigation of students with the use of chi-square tests and its application to real life problems.
  3. Insufficient information relating to students’ understanding with respect to decision making process.
  4. Incorrect administration of hypothesis testing on the basis of sample data and make a statistical inference.

1.3 Objectives of the Study

The following are the specific objectives of the Chi-square test of independence of students' performance in UTM and Post-UTM research work;

  1. To test students’ ability in carrying out a study independently.
  2. To show students the use of chi-square tests and its application to real life problems.
  3. To help students understand the process involves in decision making.
  4. To assist students to understand hypothesis testing on the basis of sample data and make a statistical inference.

1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions will be raised in this study:

  • Does the independence of students in UTM and Post-UTM influence their academic performance?
  • Will there be any difference in the academic performance of students in UTM and Post-UTM?
  • Is there any difference in the academic achievement of students’ independence in UTM and Post-UTM?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

The following research hypotheses will be formulated and tested in this study:

Hypothesis One

H0: There will be no significant difference in the performance of students’ independence in UTM and Post-UTM.

HA: There will be a significant difference in the performance of students’ independence in UTM and Post-UTM.

Hypothesis Two

H0: There will be no significant difference in the academic achievement of students’ independence in UTM and Post-UTM.

HA: There will be a significant difference in the academic achievement of students’ independence in UTM and Post-UTM.


1.6 Significance of the Study

This study is highly significant to students in mathematics, social and management sciences and all other managerial discipline or field of understanding the nitty-gritty of the process involved in decision making using chi-square independence tests.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The scope of this study covers the University of Benin Post-UME, chi-square (c2) distribution, test and procedure for implementing c2-test.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

During the course of this study, many things militated against its completion, some of which are:

  1. Time Constraint: The time frame given to accomplish this project was very short due to school academic calendar and it was carried out under pressure which made the researcher not to implement some necessary features.
  2. Establishment Policies: Establishment policies posed a serious limitation as most staffs are not ready to release information needed for this project work. There were lots of information needed from the staffs of this institution to enhance the study which took them time to release or they did not release at all for security purposes, hence the scope was reduced.

1.9 Definition of Terms

The following are some of the important concepts in statistical analysis:

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 Literature Review

2.1 Introduction

This chapter focuses on the review of related literature. A literature review includes the current knowledge as well as theoretical and methodological contributions to a particular topic. It documents the state of the art with respect to the topic you are writing. It surveys the literature in the topic selected. In this research work the literature review includes the …

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