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Climate Change

Climate Change

Project / Seminar Material
Reference ID: PS-423-TM


This research material titled “Climate Change” is dedicated to God for his enabling grace, and to all computer enthusiasts who contributed to make life a pleasant experience during my research documentation.


I extend my sincere gratitude to all those who contributed to the completion of this project. Special thanks to my Supervisor (Name of your Supervisor), the Head of Department (Name of your HOD), the Lecturers in the department of Science Laboratory Technology (SLT), Book Authors and Profound Scholars of existing or related project material on “Climate Change” for their invaluable guidance, support, and expertise throughout the journey.

I am also grateful to your study area (mention any funding organizations, if applicable) for their financial assistance. This research would not have been possible without the encouragement and assistance of some stakeholders (mention any mentors, teachers, or colleagues). Additionally, I would like to acknowledge the understanding and patience of my family and friends during this endeavor. Your unwavering support has been a constant source of motivation. Thank you all for being part of this meaningful endeavor.

Climate Change




  • 1.0 Terminology


  • 2.0 Causes
  • 2.1 Internal forcing mechanisms
  • 2.1.1 Ocean atmosphere variability
  • 2.1.2 Life
  • 2.2 External forcing mechanisms
  • 2.2.1 Orbital variations
  • 2.2.2 Solar output
  • 2.2.3 Volcanism
  • 2.2.4 Plate tectonics
  • 2.2.5 Haman influences

Chapter There

  • 3.0 Physical evidence
  • 3.1 Temperature measurements and proxies
  • 3.2 Histories and archaeological evidence
  • 3.3 Glaciers
  • 3.4 Arctic sea ice loss
  • 3.5 Vegetation
  • 3.5.1 Forest genetic resources
  • 3.6 Pollen analysis
  • 3.7 Cloud cover and precipitation
  • 3.8 Dendroclimatology
  • 3.9 Ice cores
  • 3.10 Animals
  • 3.11 Sea level change
  • Conclusion
  • Recommendations



Climate Change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time (i.e. decades to millions of years). Climate Change may refer to a change in average weather conditions, or in the variation of weather around longer-term average condition (i.e. more or fewer extreme weather events).

Climate Change is caused by factors such as biotic processes, variations in solar radiation received by earth, plate tectonics, and volcanic eruptions. Certain human activities have been identified as primary causes of ongoing Climate Change, often refers to as global warming. Scientists actively work to understand past and future climate by using observations and theoretical models.

A climate record-extending deep into the earth's past-has been assembled, and continues to be built up, based on geological evidence from borehole temperature profiles, cores removed from deep accumulation of ice, floral and faunal records, glacial and per glacial processes, stable-isotope and other analyses of sediment layers and records of past sea levels.

More recent data are provided by the instrumental record. General circulation models, based on the physical sciences are often used in theoretical approaches to match past climate, data, make future projections and link causes and effects in Climate Change.

Climate Change


1.0 Terminology

The most general definition of climate change in the statistical properties (principally is mean and spread) of the climate system when considered over long period of time, regardless of cause. Accordingly fluctuations over periods shorter than a few decades, such as El Nino, do not represent climate change.

The term “climate change” is often used to refer specially to anthropogenic climate change (also known as global warming). Anthropogenic climate change is caused by human activity as opposed to changes in climate that may have resulted as party earth's natural processes.

In this sense, especially in the context of environmental policy, the term climate change has become synonymous with anthropogenic global warning. Within scientific journals, global warming refers to surface temperature increase while climate change includes global warming and everything else that increasing greenhouse gas level affected.

A related term is “climate change”. In 1966, the world meteorological organization (WMO) proposed the term “climate change” to encompass all forms of climatic variability on time-scales longer than 10 years, regardless of cause. Change was a given and climate was used as an adjective to describe this kind of change (as opposed to political or economic change).

When it was realized that human activities had a potential to drastically alter the climate, the term climate change replaced climate change as the dominant term to reflect an anthropogenic cause. Climate change was incorporated in the title of the intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC) and the UN framework. Convention on climate change (UNFCCC). Climate change, used as a noun, became an issue rather than the technical description of changing weather.


2.0 Literature Review

2.1 Introduction

This chapter focuses on the review of related literature. A literature review includes the current knowledge as well as theoretical and methodological contributions to a particular topic. It documents the state of the art with respect to the topic you are writing. It surveys the literature in the topic selected. In this research work the literature review includes the …

Summary Headlines for Climate Change

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