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Computerized Treatment of Byopia and Presbyopiat

Computerized Treatment of Byopia and Presbyopiat

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Reference ID: PS-5186-TM

DEDICATION

This research material titled “Computerized Treatment of Byopia and Presbyopiat” is dedicated to God for his enabling grace, and to all computer enthusiasts who contributed to make life a pleasant experience during my research documentation.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I extend my sincere gratitude to all those who contributed to the completion of this project. Special thanks to my Supervisor (Name of your Supervisor), the Head of Department (Name of your HOD), the Lecturers in the department of Computer Science (CS), Book Authors and Profound Scholars of existing or related project material on “Computerized Treatment of Byopia and Presbyopiat” for their invaluable guidance, support, and expertise throughout the journey.

I am also grateful to your study area (mention any funding organizations, if applicable) for their financial assistance. This research would not have been possible without the encouragement and assistance of some stakeholders (mention any mentors, teachers, or colleagues). Additionally, I would like to acknowledge the understanding and patience of my family and friends during this endeavor. Your unwavering support has been a constant source of motivation. Thank you all for being part of this meaningful endeavor.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PRELIMINARY PAGES


CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION


    CHAPTER TWO

    LITERATURE REVIEW

    • 2.1 Introduction

    CHAPTER THREE

    SYSTEM ANALYSIS AND DESIGN

    • 3.1 Methodology Adopted
    • 3.1.1 Problem Identification Using SSADM
    • 3.2 Analysis of the Existing System
    • 3.2.1 Dataflow of the Existing System
    • 3.2.2 Disadvantages Of The Existing System
    • 3.2.3 Weakness of the existing System
    • 3.3 Feasibility Study
    • 3.3.1 Economic Feasibility
    • 3.3.2 Technical Feasibility
    • 3.3.3 Operational Feasibility
    • 3.4 Analysis of the Proposed System
    • 3.4.1 Data Flow Diagram of the Proposed System
    • 3.4.2 Advantages of the Proposed System
    • 3.4.3 Justification of the Proposed System
    • 3.5 Functional Requirements
    • 3.5.1 Use Case Diagram Of The Admin / User Privileges
    • 3.6 Data Requirements
    • 3.7 High Level Model of the Proposed System

    CHAPTER FOUR

    SYSTEM DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION

    • 4.1 Objectives of the Design
    • 4.2 Cohesion and Decomposition High level Model
    • 4.3 Control Center / Overall Dataflow Diagram
    • 4.3.1 Proposed System Operation Flowchart
    • 4.4 System Specification and Design
    • 4.4.1 Input and Output Specification
    • 4.4.2 Database Specification and Design
    • 4.4.3 Data Dictionary
    • 4.5 Choice and Justification of Programming Language
    • 4.6 Program Documentation
    • 4.7 Implementation Techniques
    • 4.7.1 System Testing
    • 4.8 Programming Module Specification
    • 4.8.1 Installation
    • 4.9 Computer Hardware Minimum Requirement
    • 4.10 Software Requirement
    • 4.11 Personnel / User Training
    • 4.12 File Maintenance Module

    CHAPTER FIVE

    SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

    • 5.1 Introduction
    • 5.2 Summary
    • 5.3 Conclusion
    • 5.4 Recommendation

    REFERENCES

    APPENDIX A - “SOURCE CODE”

    APPENDIX B - “OBJECT PROGRAM”


    Computerized Treatment of Byopia and Presbyopiat

    CHAPTER ONE


    Introduction

    1.1 Background Of The Study

    The discovery of the computer has to a greater extent revolutionized most profession and their work performance. Doctors, accountants, Architects, Bankers, Engineers, Flight Controllers cannot work without the help of the computer. Recent studies have shown that computer can be of great help in the diagnosing of several eye defects like short and long sightedness. Artificial Intelligence elements like Artificial Neural Networks, Fuzzy logic, Expert Systems, Genetic Algorithms, tend to emulate the human brain when it comes to detecting defects in the human body. The techniques used in this paper are Support Vector Machines (SVMs) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) to diagnose eyesight related problems for the people who have problems in their vision. Artificial intelligence in Medicine (AIM) field emerged in the early 1970’s in response to several simultaneous needs, opportunities and interests. An increased demand for high quality medical services coupled with the explosive growth of medical knowledge has led to the usage of computer program that could be used to assist physicians and other eye health care providers in discharging their clinical roles in diagnosis, therapy and prognosis (Javitt, 2003),.

    Recently, Support Vector Machines have been used in a range of problems including bioinformatics (Yu, et all 2003) text categorization (Sebled et all 2000), classification and pattern recognition. The support vector machine is a method for dividing a feature space using an optimized hyper plane, whereas Artificial Neural networks have been successfully applied to problems in pattern classification, pattern matching, function approximation, optimization and associative Memories (Luger, G.F., 2004). In Artificial Neural Networks the nonlinearity of transfer function gives the network capability to emulate nonlinear mapping properties. In this research a feedback net mechanism has been used.


    1.2 Statement Of The Problem

    Although humans are wise enough to learn about the body, its defects and how to implement solutions to them, our knowledge is greatly limited. Accuracy and speed of humans are always low. There are always mistakes especially when it comes to delicate parts of the body like the eyes.

    Myopia and presbyopia which is short and long sightedness respectively has been in existence even before the invention of computers. Early detection and solution to it has also been a burden to humans due to limited knowledge and how slow we are. Some patients who have not shown any symptoms of myopia and presbyopia but have it are told to go home and relax due to we haven’t seen any physical known symptoms, hence worsening the situation.


    1.3 Objective Of The Study

    The main objective of this study is to design a computerized system for the diagnosis of myopia and presbyopia and to proffer necessary treatment.

    Specific objectives include:

    1. To design and build an intelligent system in medicine to improve the efficiency of the current method of eye defect diagnosis.
    2. To develop an expert tool which incorporates decision support system characteristics to aid eye specialist in early detection of myopia and presbyopia.
    3. A specifically designed database, with the purpose of storing doctor and patient details, availability information of pharmacy and blood bank, diagnostic center services, doctor appointment schedule, diagnostic center services schedule, ER services alongside access levels for the intended specific user types of the system as the main aspects.

    1.4 Scope Of The Study

    In order to achieve the objectives stated above, the scope of the study is limited to the following:

    1. The study involves conducting research and analyzing the current system of operation in Obinwanne eye clinic Nkpor and to suggest a computerized method of detecting and solving myopia and presbyopia.
    2. The system involves creating a knowledge base which incorporates all the known symptoms of the eye defect in order to be able to detect and proffer solution as early as possible.
    3. The system is designed using Java which gives it the ability to run on any operating system.

    By determining the scope of the study, the subsequent processes in developing the proposed system as the solution to the research problem would be easier and has clearer defined boundary, which in turn act as a guideline in developing the system.


    1.5 Justification Of The Study

    Provision of healthcare services, particularly when it comes to eyes is a largely neglected area in Nigeria. Any meaningful improvement made in this field will therefore be beneficial for all medical practitioners involved. Generally, people attempting to receive services will be able to experience the advantages provided by a system that is efficient, effective, easy to use and affordable. In order to minimize suffering of the affected people and introduce efficiency in the system that will provide greater utility, this project work was commenced.


    1.6 Limitation Of The Study

    The following are some factors, which acted as an impeachment or constraints to the progress of the project work;

    1. Lack of Documented materials: It was difficult to start the project initially because reference materials at my disposal are limited.
    2. Financial constraint is another factors that limited the researcher in owning out this project effectively.
    3. Reluctance by the respondents in giving information fearing that the information sought would be used to intimidate them or print a negative image about them.

    To counter this, I carried a pilot study to establish the possible cause of non-compliance in filling the questionnaires and adjusted the questionnaire accordingly.

    Also I encouraged the respondents to participate without holding back the information they might be having as the research instruments would not bear their names.


    1.7 Organization Of The Study

    THIS paper is structured as follows:

    1. Chapter one gives the general overview of myopia and presbyopia and how effective computers can be in their early diagnosis.
    2. Chapter two presents the review of related work carried out.
    3. Chapter Three provides the methodology used in the research work, analysis of the present system and solutions giving by the proposed system.
    4. Chapter four gives the system specification and designs of the proposed system
    5. Chapter five gives the conclusion and recommendation of the whole work

    1.8 Definition Of Terms

    Myopia:

    A condition in which close objects appear clearly but far ones appear blurry

    Presbyopia:

    A gradual age related loss of the eyes ability to focus activity on nearly objects.

    Diagnosis:

    The identification of an illness through cross examination

    CHAPTER TWO

    2.0 Literature Review

    2.1 Introduction

    This chapter focuses on the review of related literature. A literature review includes the current knowledge as well as theoretical and methodological contributions to a particular topic. It documents the state of the art with respect to the topic you are writing. It surveys the literature in the topic selected. In this research work the literature review includes the …

    Summary Headlines for Computerized Treatment of Byopia and Presbyopiat



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