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📚 (2023) Project / Seminar Proposal Topics and Materials

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Construction of Reinforced Concrete Seat

Construction of Reinforced Concrete Seat

Project / Seminar Material
Reference ID: PS-453-TM


This research work titled "Construction of Reinforced Concrete Seat" is dedicated to God for his enabling grace and to all computer enthusiasts who help to make life a pleasant experience.



I owe my indebtedness to my Supervisor (Name of your Supervisor), the Head of Department (Name of your HOD), the Lecturers in the department of Civil Engineering, Book Authors and Profound Scholars of existing/related research work for your moral support that facilitated the successful completion of my (Tertiary Institution level). I am grateful to God Almighty and my parent for their financial support in my career. I really appreciate you all for everything, Thank you very much.


Construction of Reinforced Concrete Seat





  • 1.1 Introduction
  • 1.2 Background of Study
  • 1.3 Statement of Problems
  • 1.4 Aim and Objectives of Study
  • 1.5 Significance of Study
  • 1.6 Scope of Study
  • 1.7 Limitations of the Study
  • 1.8 Definition of Terms



  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Conceptual Review of Concrete
  • 2.3 Advantages and Disadvantages
  • 2.3.1 Advantages
  • 2.3.2 Disadvantages
  • 2.4 Fresh Concrete
  • 2.5 Workability
  • 2.5.1 Factors Affecting Workability
  • 2.6 Segregation and Bleeding
  • 2.7 Component of Concrete
  • 2.7.1 Aggregate
  • 2.7.2 Cement
  • 2.7.3 Water
  • 2.8 Steel Reinforcement
  • 2.9 Formwork
  • 2.10 Curing Concrete



  • 3.1 Materials and Tools Used
  • 3.2 Procedure
  • 3.3 Formwork
  • 3.4 Cutting and General Arrangement of Reinforcement Steel for Slab and Stand
  • 3.5 Reinforcement of the Seat
  • 3.6 Batching of Aggregate



  • 4.1 Materials
  • 4.2 Use in Construction
  • 4.3 Mechanism of Composite Action of Reinforcement and Concrete
  • 4.4 Anchorage (bond) in Concrete
  • 4.5 Anti-corrosion Measures



  • 5.1 Conclusion
  • 5.2 Recommendation




The Construction of Reinforced Concrete Seat is a project work that deals with the production of reinforced concrete. How reinforced concrete is being produced using the aggregate coarse aggregate cement, water and reinforcement bars. The concrete mixed together in dry state and inter added with water. A formwork was prepared in other to create a shape for the seat that will be produced after the concrete is being poured into the formwork. The fresh concrete was later poured into the form work and allowed to dry. It was cured in other to increase the strength of the concrete.


Construction of Reinforced Concrete Seat


1.1 Introduction

Reinforced concrete is the most widely used structural material worldwide. However, it’s ability to perform as designed is dependent on it being properly constructed. Reinforced concrete seat is a seat constructed with cement aggregates and other materials such as reinforcement and water. It is essential to the durability of reinforced concrete structures that the specified concrete cover to the reinforcement is achieved.

The placement of concrete seat in a place can create a great focal point for relaxation within the school vicinity. It is be design for people’s comfort while relaxing on it. It is design in a way that it will be long lasting. The reinforced concrete seat was constructed to carry the weight at different people without failure or deformation i.e the imposed load to avoid sagging or failure thereby causing harm to the people.

As a prelude to other parts of this study, this chapter will discuss the background upon which this study was initiated, the statement of problems that led to this study, the Aim and Objectives of the study. Others are Significance of the study, Scope of work, Limitation of the study and Definition of technical terms.

1.2 Background of Study

The roman first invented what today is called hydraulic cement – base concrete. They build numerous concrete structures, including the Pantheon in Rome, one of the finest architecture that survived to the day.

The name concrete comes from Latin word “concretus” which means to grow together.

Chemical hydration process which mainly occurs over the time scale of hours and days causes the material to grow together from a viscoelastic moldable liquid into a hard, rigid solid. In our world today, concrete has become ubiquitous and in fact, it is hard to imagine modern life without it about five billion tones at concrete are sued around the world each year. The cement used mostly in today’s concrete is called port land cement. The process to produce port land cement was invented by Joseph Aspdin in the early 1800’s in England. It is important to remember that cement is the powder that reacts with water to form cement past, a hard, solid material that form the matrix for the concrete composite, the addition of said (fine aggregate) that are up to a few millimeter in diameter make mortar, and the addition of rocks (coarse aggregate) at up to a few centimeters in diameter makes concrete and the pouring at concrete into reinforcement make the reinforced concrete. And this can be used for the construction of concrete seat.

Therefore, in Nigeria where the research was carried out, the activities that was conducted is to know the Construction of Reinforced Concrete Seat.

1.3 Statement of Problems

Concrete is an excellent material, but it is not perfect. You don’t have to look very far to identify the real life concrete problem.

However, most of the problems are avoidable or fixable unfortunately most concrete problems are the result of error with the finisher. And builder, to maximize profit, take the lowest bidder. The lowest bidder uses the latest amount of man power to get the job done and was cheaper, lower quality concrete with low compressive strength and inexpensive admixture filler (fly-ash).

Most problems associated with concrete arises from the inability of the finisher to finish the concrete slab correctly, because of production rate and manpower.

These are the most common problem associated with concrete.

  • Surface Scaling / Spalling: Surface scaling is when the surface of hardened concrete breaks at to a depth of 1.5mm of 5mm, generally during the first year of placement. This occurs because at the application of sodium chloride (salt) on concrete with inadequate strength.
  • Cracking: Cracking is break that occurs in area other than those place. Cracks seldom result in structural problem. Some of the reason why concrete crack include excess water in mix, rapid drying of concrete, improper strength of concrete for the job, improperly placed tension control joints etc.
  • Dusting: Dusting is the presence of a powdery material at the surface of a hardened slab. It is caused by insufficient or no curing of the surface. Omission of concrete often results in a soft concrete surface.
  • Popout: Pop out is a conical shaped fragment that breaks out of the surface of concrete. It is caused by the expansion at porous aggregate particles having a high rate of absorption.

1.4 Aim and Objectives of Study

This project has the purpose of expanding the knowledge and skill involve in construction and also to acquire knowledge at the construction of concrete seat (reinforced).

The aim of this project also focuses on creating a place of relaxation in Federal Polytechnic Nekede. This project will also enable the student to be self reliance even when they are out at school.

1.5 Significance of Study

Reinforced concrete, both insitu and precast , for any structural project should comply with British standard 8110, (BS8110). This study will be of immense benefit to other researchers who intend to know more on this study and can also be used by non-researchers to build more on their research work. This study contributes to knowledge and could serve as a guide for other study.

1.6 Scope of Study

The scope of the project is to select a suitable location, also to select the best material suitable to the location/site of construction. To also draw, design and detail the concrete seat as well as construct the seat.

1.7 Limitations of the Study

During the course of this study, many things militated against its completion, some of which are:

  1. Time Constraint: The time frame given to accomplish this project was very short due to school academic calendar and it was carried out under pressure which made the researcher not to implement some necessary features.
  2. Research material: availability of research material is a major setback to the scope of the study.
  3. Frequent power failure: This made the researcher append more money on fuel to ensure sustainable power.
  4. Financial Constraint: Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet).

1.8 Definition of Terms

Aggregate: Aggregate in building and construction material sued for mixing with cement, bitumen, lime, gypsum, or other adhesive to form concrete or mortar.

Mortar: A mixture of cement, sand (fine aggregate) and cement and water.

Concrete: A mixture of cement, sand, stone (coarse aggregate) and water.

Reinforcing Steel Bar: They are used for reinforcement of concrete structures, manufacture of anchor bolts etc

Super Structure: That part of the structure that is above the ground level.

Sub-Structure/Foundation: Is the lower portion of the structure usually located below the ground level.


2.0 Literature Review

2.1 Introduction

This chapter focuses on the review of related literature. A literature review includes the current knowledge as well as theoretical and methodological contributions to a particular topic. It documents the state of the art with respect to the topic you are writing. It surveys the literature in the topic selected. In this research work the literature review includes the …

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