Face recognition and detection is one of the most important fields of the modern applications. Face recognition system uses two sub-systems named face detection system and image database system. Face recognition can be of feature based and image based. Feature based method uses features like skin color, eyes, nose and mouth to detect and recognize human face whereas image based method utilizes some preprocessed image sets for detection. Face recognition system is an application for identifying someone from image or videos. Face recognition is classified into three stages i.e Face detection, Feature Extraction, Face Recognition. Face detection method is a difficult task in image analysis. Face detection is an application for detecting object, analyzing the face, understanding the localization of the face and face recognition. It is used in many application for new communication interface and security. The main goal of face detection is to detect human faces from different images or videos.
As a prelude to other parts of this study, this chapter will discuss the background upon which this study was initiated, the statement of problems that led to this study, the Aim and Objectives of the study. Others are Significance of the study, Scope of work, Limitation of the study and Definition of technical terms.
1.2 Background of Study
Face recognition has gained substantial attention over in past decades due to its increasing demand in security applications like video surveillance and biometric surveillance. Modern facilities like hospitals, airports, banks and many more another organizations are being equipped with security systems including face recognition capability. Despite of current success, there is still an ongoing research in this field to make facial recognition system faster and accurate. The accuracy of any face recognition system strongly depends on the face detection system. The stronger the face detection system the better the recognition system would be. A face detection system can successfully detect human face from a given image containing face/faces and from live video involving human presence.
The main methods used in these days for face detection are feature based and image based. Feature based method separates human features like skin color and facial features whereas image based method used some face patterns and processed training images to distinguish between face and non faces. Feature based method has been chosen because it is faster than image based method and its’ implementation is far more simplified. Face detection from an image is achieved through image processing. Locating the faces from images is not a trivial task; because images not just contain human faces but also non-face objects in clutter scenes. Moreover, there are other issues in face recognition like lighting conditions, face orientations and skin colors. Due to these reasons, the accuracy of any face recognition system cannot be 100%.
Face recognition is a pattern recognition technique and one of the most important biometrics; it is used in a broad spectrum of applications. The accuracy is not a major problem that specifies the performance of automatic face recognition system alone, the time factor is also considered a major factor in real time environments. Recent architecture of the computer system can be employed to solve the time problem, this architecture represented by multi-core CPUs and many-core GPUs that provide the possibility to perform various tasks by parallel processing. However, harnessing the current advancements in computer architecture is not without difficulties. Motivated by such challenge, this research proposes a Computerized Face Detection and Recognition System (FDRS). In doing so, this research work provides the architectural design, detailed design, and four variant implementations of the FDRS.
Face recognition is one of the most important biometrics methods. Despite the fact that there are more reliable biometric recognition techniques such as fingerprint and iris recognition, these techniques are intrusive and their success depends highly on user cooperation. Therefore, face recognition seems to be the most universal, non-intrusive, and accessible system. It is easy to use, can be used efficiently for mass scanning, which is quite difficult, in case of other biometrics. Also it is natural and socially accepted. Moreover, technologies that require multiple individuals to use the same equipment to capture their biological characteristics probably expose the user to the transmission of germs and impurities from other users. However, face recognition is completely non-intrusive and does not carry any such health dangers.
1.3 Statement of Problem
Investigation revealed that the issues with Face Detection and Recognition System is on individual with identical face like identical twins and others, in situation like this it is possible for the system to make mistake or error in processing the person image so as to grant access to the rightful user. Faced with the numerous security challenges facing developing nations such as Nigeria, the researcher developed a computerized system where faces are captured and stored in the database for retrieval purposes, should in case faces need to be identified.
1.4 Aim and Objectives of the Study
The aim of the study is to design and implement a Computerized Face Detection and Recognition System. In achieving this aim, the following specific objectives were laid out as follows to develop an application software that will:
- Assist in maintaining a strong security in an organizational work environment.
- Highlight areas of vulnerability in the new system and store all the information using MySQL database.
- Enable the user capture all the necessary data on staff employment and assessment.
- Present information to management in a meaningful format containing necessary information.
- Create a ridged and secure database for the organization to enable them secure their sensitive data and records.
1.5 Significance of Study
This study is primarily aimed at increasing efficiency in security, this research work will help the users in maintaining data. This system will reduce the rate of fraudulent activities as it can as well keep track of registered users and grant them access upon face recognition completion.
Also the knowledge that would be obtained from this research will assist the management to grow; also this research work will also be of help to the upcoming researcher in this field of study both with the academic students on their study.
This study will be of immense benefit to other researchers who intend to know more on this study and can also be used by non-researchers to build more on their research work. This study contributes to knowledge and could serve as a guide for other study.
1.6 Scope of Study
The scope of the research is focused on the Design and Implementation of a Computerized Face Detection and Recognition System.
1.7 Limitations of the Study
During the course of this study, many things militated against its completion, some of which are:
- Time Constraint: The time frame given to accomplish this project was very short due to school academic calendar and it was carried out under pressure which made the researcher not to implement some necessary features.
- Research material: availability of research material is a major setback to the scope of the study.
- Frequent power failure: This made the researcher append more money on fuel to ensure sustainable power.
- Financial Constraint: Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet).
1.8 Definition of Terms
Registration: This means to keep records received from the management for reference purposes.
Management: It is the co-ordination of all the resources of an Organization through the process of planning, Organization, directing and controlling
System: Physical component of a computer that is used to perform certain task.
Data: Numbers, Text or image which is in the form suitable for Storage in or processing by a computer, or incomplete information.
Information: A meaning full material derived from computer data by organizing it and interpreting it in a specified way.