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Design and Implementation of an Online Outpatient Management System A Case Study of Sokoto Specialist Hospital
S

Software Implementation of an Online Outpatient Management System (A Case Study of Sokoto Specialist Hospital)

C.S. Project Software
Reference ID: SD-887-CS

Software Implementation under Computer Science (CS)

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DEDICATION

This research work titled "Design and Implementation of an Online Outpatient Management System" is dedicated to God for his enabling grace and to all computer enthusiasts who help to make life a pleasant experience.



i

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I owe my indebtedness to my Supervisor (Name of your Supervisor), the Head of Department (Name of your HOD), the Lecturers in the department of Computer Science (CS), Book Authors and Profound Scholars of existing/related research work for your moral support that facilitated the successful completion of my (Tertiary Institution level). I am grateful to God Almighty and my parent for their financial support in my career. I really appreciate you all for everything, Thank you very much.



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Design and Implementation of an Online Outpatient Management System (A Case Study of Sokoto Specialist Hospital)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Preliminary Pages

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • 1.1 Introduction
  • 1.2 Background of the Study
  • 1.3 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.4 Aim and Objectives of the Study
  • 1.5 Significance of the Study
  • 1.6 Scope of Study
  • 1.7 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.8 Definition of Terms

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Conceptual Review of Patients Administered Drug Information
  • 2.2.1 Classification of Information Sources
  • 2.2.2 Drug Reference Data for Hospital Patients
  • 2.2.3 Drug Interaction
  • 2.2.3.1 Drug Interaction Prevention
  • 2.2.4 Drug Adverse Effect
  • 2.3 Importance of Indexing and Abstracting Services for Patients’ Medical File
  • 2.4 Benefits of Abstracts in Information
  • 2.5 Clinical Trials
  • 2.6 Phases of Clinical Trials
  • 2.7 Vital Role of Indexing Patient’s Records
  • 2.8 Need for Outsourcing the Document indexing
  • 2.9 Types of Patients’ Record Indexes
  • 2.10 Classes of Patient Monitoring System in Industry
  • 2.11 The Need for a Database Management System
  • 2.12 Database Management Administration
  • 2.12.1 Roles of a Database Administrator
  • 2.13 Database for Patient Management System Web Portals
  • 2.13.1 Merits of Integrating Databases in Web Applications

CHAPTER THREE

SYSTEM ANALYSIS AND DESIGN

  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Detailed Analysis of Existing System
  • 3.2.1 Problems of the Existing System
  • 3.3 Research Methodology
  • 3.4 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.4.1 Interview Method
  • 3.4.2 Review of Related Literature Existing System
  • 3.5 Objectives of the New System
  • 3.5.1 Feasibility Study
  • 3.5.2 Technical Feasibility
  • 3.5.3 Operational Feasibility
  • 3.5.4 Economic Feasibility
  • 3.6.1 Context / Dataflow Diagram
  • 3.6.2 Modularity
  • 3.6.3 System Flowchart
  • 3.6.4 Program Flowchart
  • 3.7 System design/menu specification
  • 3.7.1 Output Specification
  • 3.7.2 Input Specification
  • 3.7.3 Database Design Specification
  • 3.7.4 Security Design Specification

CHAPTER FOUR

SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION AND DISCUSSION

  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Justification of the Programming Language
  • 4.3 System Requirement
  • 4.3.1 Software Requirement
  • 4.3.2 Hardware Requirement
  • 4.3.3 People
  • 4.4 System Testing
  • 4.5 Implementation Techniques
  • 4.6 Programming Module Specification
  • 4.6.1 Installation
  • 4.7 Computer Hardware Minimum Requirement
  • 4.10 Software Requirement
  • 4.11 Personnel / User Training

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, AND RECOMMENDATIONS

  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Summary
  • 5.3 Conclusion
  • 5.4 Recommendations

REFERENCE

APPENDIX A - “SOURCE CODE”

APPENDIX B - “OBJECT PROGRAM”




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ABSTRACT

Outpatient Management is an information system that is used to record relevant information relating to the patients. The prescribe drugs, bought drugs, sold drugs and available drugs are processed by the program. The aim of this project is to design an Online Outpatient Management System. In achieving this aim, the following specific objectives were laid out as follows to develop an application software that will capture and store patients drug data for a teaching hospital, generate bills of each patient drug administered and execute a proper recording of patients’ drugs and diagnosis result and keep track of list of patients’ beds occupied and vacant. The motivation that led to the implementation of the proposed system is that the existing system lacks immediate retrievals of health related documents and the errors that arise as a result of manual calculation of health bills. The methodology adopted in this study is the structured system analysis and design methodology (SSADM) which is a technical approach for analyzing and designing an application or system by applying object throughout the software development process. The programming language used is HTML, CSS, JAVASCRIPT, PHP, SQL and JQUERY. The reason why web programming languages was used is because, it is platform independent and it is a web based application. The work will be beneficial to both the management and staffs within the hospital establishment as it makes patients management easier. It will enable the management to know the total number of patients and the payment made by patient as the software will keep tracks of all the patients’ transactions with the hospital. It will ensure that patients are attended on time and a how a patient can get registered first, before the proper bill process. The expected result is an Online Outpatient Management System that will execute a proper recording of patients’ drugs and diagnosis result and keep proper track of appointments made with the patient by the hospital.





iv


Design and Implementation of an Online Outpatient Management System (A Case Study of Sokoto Specialist Hospital)

CHAPTER ONE

1.1 Introduction

Outpatient Management is an information system that is used to record relevant information relating to the patients. The prescribe drugs, bought drugs, sold drugs and available drugs are processed by the program. Anti-infective drugs are classified as antibacterials, antivirals, or antifungals depending on the type of microorganism they combat. Anti-infective drugs interfere selectively with the functioning of a microorganism while leaving the human host unharmed. The Outpatient Management monitoring is a very critical monitoring system, it can monitor physiological signals including electrocardiograph (ECG), Respiration Rate, Invasive and Non-Invasive Blood Pressure, Oxygen Saturation in Human Blood (SpO2), Body Temperature and other Gases etc. During patient treatment, the PMS is to monitor continuously vital physiological signs of the patient. It is quite hard job for medical personnel to monitor each patient for 24 hours. Cost reduction pressures and the need for shortened in-patient stays are promoting the use of wireless patient monitoring systems in hospitals (Edan, 2009).

As a prelude to other parts of this study, this chapter will discuss the background upon which this study was initiated, the statement of problems that led to this study, the Aim and Objectives of the study. Others are Significance of the study, Scope of work, Limitation of the study and Definition of technical terms.

1.2 Background of the Study

Historically, however, hospitals were often founded and funded by religious orders or charitable individuals and leaders. A hospital is an institution for health care that provides patient treatment by specialized staff and equipment. Usually, hospitals are funded by the public sector, by health organizations (for profit or nonprofit), health insurance companies or charities, including funds by direct charitable donations. Modern-day hospitals are largely staffed by professional physicians, surgeons, and nurses. Hospitals are distinguished by their ownership, scope of services, and whether they are teaching hospitals with academic affiliations. Hospitals may be operated as proprietary (for-profit) businesses, owned either by corporations or individuals such as the physicians or they may be voluntary-owned by non-profit corporations, religious organizations, or operated by federal, state, or city governments.

A drug service for Online Outpatient Management System uses artificial intelligence and powerful methodology to quickly create very accurate analysis. The software gives you the ability to predict sales by customer, account group, channel, end-item SKU and package. Both weekly and daily analyses are created with lightning speed, instantly updating on the screen.

Antibacterial drugs, or antibiotics sulfa drugs, penicillins, cephalosporins, and many others either kill bacteria directly or prevent them from multiplying so that the body’s immune system can destroy invading bacteria. Antibacterial drugs act by interfering with some specific characteristics of bacteria. For example, they may destroy bacterial cell walls or interfere with the synthesis of bacterial proteins or deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) the chemical that carries the genetic material of an organism. Antibiotics often cure an infection completely. However, bacteria can spontaneously mutate, producing strains that are resistant to existing antibiotics.

Online Outpatient Management System of Annunciation Hospital shows various drug that one can purchase. It records the available drugs, the sold drugs and the money collected from the sold drug. It involves database programming to keep track of the event of the system. The program is also implemented using web based programming languages. Depending on the drug and its desired effect, there are a variety of administration methods. Most drugs are administered orally that is, through the mouth. Only drugs that will not be destroyed by the digestive processes of the stomach or intestines can be given orally. Drugs can also be administered by injection into a vein (intravenously), which assures quick distribution through the bloodstream and a rapid effect; under the skin (subcutaneously) into the tissues, which results in localized action at a particular site as with local anesthetics; or into a muscle (intramuscularly), which enables rapid absorption through the many blood vessels found in muscles. An intramuscular injection may also be given as a depot preparation, in which the drug is combined with other substances so that it is slowly released into the blood.

Most community hospitals offer emergency services as well as a range of inpatient and outpatient medical and surgical services. Community hospitals, where most people receive care, are typically small, with fifty to five hundred beds. These hospitals normally provide quality care for routine medical and surgical problems. Some community hospitals are nonprofit corporations, supported by local funding. These include hospitals supported by religious, cooperative, or osteopathic organizations.

1.3 Statement of the Problem

In the current system of operation in Sokoto Specialist Hospital, when a patient enters the hospital, the following sequence of operation is carried out. First, the patient is registered in the card/registration room, and then the patient goes to the nurses’ workbench for examination (vital signs), the nurses then carries the patient folder to the doctors’ workbench for diagnosis. After the diagnosis, the patient is then sent to the laboratory for test or the patient is sent to the pharmacy for collection of drugs; the pharmacy section checks the patients prescribed drugs and cost them before the folder is sent to the bill office for billing. After diagnosis the patient can also be referred to another clinic or to see a consultant in the same hospital. For example he/she may be referred for radiology services (CT scan, MRI, and ultrasound) or to special services like dental care. There may also be possibilities for surgical services. The inpatient may recover fully and be discharged or die and will be given a death report.

These processes are tedious and full of man-made errors. The purpose of the hospital management system is to automate the system for easy storage and retrieval of data, smooth flow of information and management of hospital. Some errors identified in the current system include:

  1. Lack of immediate retrievals: The information is very difficult to retrieve and to find particular information like- E.g. - To find out about the patient’s history, the user has to go through various registers. This results in in convenience and wastage of time
  2. Lack of immediate information storage: The information generated by various transactions takes time and efforts to be stored at right place
  • Lack of prompt updating: Various changes to information like patient details or immunization details of child are difficult to make as paper work is involved.
  1. Error prone manual calculation: Manual calculations are error prone and take a lot of time this may result in incorrect information, for example calculation of patient’s bill based on various treatments.
  2. Preparation of accurate and prompt reports: This becomes a difficult task as information is difficult to collect from various register.

1.4 Aim and Objectives of the Study

The aim of this project is to design an Online Outpatient Management System. In achieving this aim, the following specific objectives were laid out as follows to develop an application software that will:

  1. Capture and store patients drug data for a teaching hospital
  2. Generate and manage bills of each patient drug administered
  3. Execute a proper recording of patients’ drugs and diagnosis result.
  4. Keep proper track of appointments made with the patient by the hospital
  5. Keep track of list of patients’ beds (Occupied and Vacant).

1.5 Significance of the Study

The work will be beneficial to both the management and staffs within the hospital establishment as it makes patients management easier. It will enable the management to know the total number of patients and the payment made by patient as the software will keep tracks of all the patients’ transactions with the hospital. It will ensure that patients are attended on time and a how a patient can get registered first, before the proper bill process.

With the growth in information technology, the study offers numerous values both to the film and to any hospital that deals on marketing of goods and items. Huge of files kept in the offices will no longer be there again because information will be stored on the computer with the help of the Online Outpatient Management System Because of the easy to use nature of the Online Outpatient Management System, any hospital can easily buy it to make use of them.

This study will be of immense benefit to academic students and other researchers who intend to know more on this study and can also be used by non-researchers to build more on their research work. This study contributes to knowledge and could serve as a guide for other study.

1.6 Scope of Study

The scope of the research is focused on the Design and Implementation of an Online Outpatient Management System using Sokoto Specialist Hospital as a case study.

1.7 Limitation of the Study

During the course of this study, many things militated against its completion, some of which are:

  1. Time Constraint: The time frame given to accomplish this project was very short due to school academic calendar and it was carried out under pressure which made the researcher not to implement some necessary features.
  2. Establishment Policies: Establishment policies posed a serious limitation as most staffs are not ready to release information needed for this project work. There were lots of information needed from the staffs of this institution to enhance the study which took them time to release or they did not release at all for security purposes, hence the scope was reduced.
  3. Research material: availability of research material is a major setback to the scope of the study.
  4. Frequent power failure: This made the researcher append more money on fuel to ensure sustainable power.
  5. Financial Constraint: Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

1.8 Definition of Terms

Medication: A medication is a substance that is taken in to or placed on the body that does one of the following things: most medications are used to cure disease or condition. (For example, antibiotics are given to cure an infection. Medications are also given to treat a medical condition).

Prescription: A prescription is a health-care program implemented by a physician or other qualified health care practitioner in the form of instructions that govern the plan of care for an individual patient.

Symptom: A symptom is a departure from normal function or feeling which is apparent to a patient, reflecting the presence of an unusual state or of a disease. (For example: tiredness, cough or fever).

Administration: An administration is the act of giving a drug to somebody or a patient. (for example the administration of antibiotics).

Information: Information is used to tell someone that they are wrong about something.

Patient Data: This is the patient medical records such as; name, address, and phone number.

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 Literature Review

2.1 Introduction

This chapter focuses on the review of related literature. A literature review includes the current knowledge as well as theoretical and methodological contributions to a particular topic. It documents the state of the art with respect to the topic you are writing. It surveys the literature in the topic selected. In this research work the literature review includes the …

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Final year research work is all about finding real life problem and proffering solution that will partially or totally eliminate the existing system bottlenecks. The following are the major and elective project proposal writing sections for "Design and implementation of an online outpatient management system (a case study of sokoto specialist hospital)" research work;

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  • Statement of Problems

  • Aim of the Study

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Design and Implementation of an Online Outpatient Management System is a proposal topic for final year research work, which comprises the major and elective project proposal writing sections for Design and Implementation of an Online Outpatient Management System (A Case Study of Sokoto Specialist Hospital) research work.

Major Sections
  • Motivation for Embarking on the Project

  • Brief Background of Study

  • Statement of Problems

  • Aim of the Study

  • Specific Objectives of the Study

  • Significance of the Study (Who benefits from the project and how?)

Elective Sections
  • Methodology and Reason for Using It (such as; models, SSADM, or OOADM)

  • Tools (programming languages and software used)


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CHAPTER ONE

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CHAPTER TWO

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CHAPTER THREE

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CHAPTER FOUR

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CHAPTER FIVE

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