Reliable criminal suspects’ recognition is an important problem in crime investigation process. Biometrics recognition is becoming an irreplaceable part of many identification systems. While successful in some niche markets, the biometrics technology has not yet delivered its promise of full proof automatic crime suspects’ recognition, especially in a developing country like Nigeria. The study proposes and implements a biometrics-based crime investigation system using a fingerprint verification process to validate suspects for the Nigerian security agencies (Police Force, Navy, Army, etc).
I shall discuss on the techniques that will be employed by me on accomplishing this research work, its limitation and scope will be highlighted.
1.1 Background of Study
Criminality is part and parcel of human nature and society [Alemika, E. 2004]. That is why no society can claim to be completely crime free. But the types of criminal behavior tend to follow the pattern of social and economic development of a given society [Sohnen, E. 2012]. It is therefore not unexpected that a society at a low level of development and as Madden and Chiu (1998) mentioned, uneven distribution of income (and wealth) [Madden, P. and W.H. Chiu. 1998], tends to experience an upsurge in the rate of violent crimes such as armed robbery, politically motivated killings, the use of illegal weapons, ethnic and religious clashes and the like. What is worrisome, however, is that the police which are meant to be the antidote to criminality appear to be getting overwhelmed by the phenomenon [Ash, H.S. 1999]. The criminals appear to be ahead of the police such that the latter now only react to the commission of crimes and usually after the offenders might have left the scene making things appear as if the original emphasis on crime prevention has been completely lost [Awake Magazine. 2002]. Aside other complaints, there are institutional constraints, which contribute to the uncomplimentary image of the police and thereby undermining their capacity to deliver efficient crime control via proper and prompt investigation and policing services. These include inadequate manpower, lack of expertise, lack of adequate equipment, low level of education, low morale, lack of training facilities and lack of technological knowhow, etc.
In developed countries; computers have been used in crime detection for some decades. Computer- Based Criminal Records Systems were the first of such systems deployed as an attempt to record a person’s criminal history. Before the introduction and the application of computers in criminal records, crime investigation, and detection, most criminal records or other criminal related activities was carried out using the manual or traditional approach in the process of data processing, which involves the use of paper files, manual skills and human brain work.
The traditional approach of crime investigation is usually time-consuming, resulting in a lot of delay and often generally inefficient leading to high cost. On the other hand, the use of computers in the management of criminal records and crime investigation tends to be very efficient due to the fact that less time is spent on the investigation of crimes since it is automated; giving accurate and reliable criminal investigation results.
With the introduction of biometrics technology which is an advanced computer techniques now widely adopted as a front line security measure for both identity verification and crime detection, and also offers an effective crime deterrent.
Biometrics embrace a range of techniques such as fingerprinting and handwriting recognition for identity verification using physical data and behavioral patterns [Gautam, P. and S.G. Sharma. 2011]. In the recent past, fingerprint images were obtained by “ink-technique” which is also referred as off- line fingerprint acquisition [Hiew, B.Y.: 2007]. It is essentially based on the development of pattern recognition systems, today electronic or optical sensors such as cameras and scanning devices are used to capture images, recordings or measurements of a person’s unique characteristics. This digital data is then encoded and can be stored and searched on demand, via a computer. Such biometric search is not only very rapid (often taking place in real time), it is also a process that is accepted globally in establishing forensic evidence in a law court [Drygajlo, A. 2010]. It cannot be over emphasized that there is need to provide for adequate, efficient and effective technological knowhow especially in the area of crime investigation which will make their job simpler and faster, as well as prompt and effective in their service delivery. Consequently, this project will seek to design a computerized fingerprint verification system for crime investigation for The Nigeria Police Force in my state Ota, Ogun State, Using Biometrics approach (Fingerprint).
1.2 Statement of Problem
Various problems are encountered in the manual system of operations in any organization, so it is in the crime investigation system in Nigeria Police Force.
Some of the problems encountered are:
- The process of finding the accused and justifying case within the Nigerian security agency has been tedious, most times innocent citizens are convicted for crime not committed because of lack of prove. Or being wrongly accused.
- Criminal case are been investigated blindly or based on assumption, by facial look and appearance. Example. A situations were citizens will be arrested and torture to confess on being guilty of a crime.
- Accuracy about cases being treated by this security agencies are not guaranteed a bit, because there might be a case of the accused being identical or forms of resemblance.
1.3 Objectives of Study
I have been able to identify three core problem to the use of the manual system in crime verification, used by most Nigerian security agencies. Therefore, my objective for this research work is based on those identified problem.
Hence my objective is:
- To develop a biometrics system where prime suspects on crimes can be verified using their fingerprint.
- To integrate a system that will capture the finger metrics of all Nigerian citizens to a single database, and making it available for use and accessible for the course of this research.
- To improve the verification system of our security agencies and procedure, thereby, bringing accuracy to their investigation in crime committed.
1.4 Research Motivation
I was actually motivated to research on this and develop a system, such as this, a sophisticated one in this nature.
I was motivated by this research when I witness a murder case with my friend at a hideout, the crime take place at a sunset, while the crime was going on the police force showed up, the criminal was on a mask, covering the face, when the police went after him with shooting, he took off, while escaping, had the mask on his face fall off, though he was not seen. They mask was taken, but the case ended just that was since they were unable to trace the suspect, whereas the suspect evidence is with them (the mask) which has the criminal finger print metrics. This was a matter of scanning it to identify the suspect. Then as a computer science system I had the thought of developing a system that will help to accomplish this task within the unit (Police Force and others).
1.5 Aim of Study
This research work is to develop a secured system, a fingerprint verification system for crime rectification and attesting. A system that will help in anticrime fight, with the aim of bringing justices to the desk.
1.6 System Architecture
In the system Architecture I will discuss how the system was archived, its design structure, model, constraint and limitation.
Choice of Programming Language
Visual Basic programming language was used for the design of the software. Visual basic consist of several part: API class libraries that contains all built in function that makes the windows platform to function the way it does, An IDE that gives you the ability to tap from the power and functionality of these API libraries. Visual basic language was chosen for this project because it is:
visual basic was built with security in mind
ii. Easy to program with:
visual basic is very easy to use programming tool.
It is reliable. Visual basic puts a lot of emphases on early checking for possible errors
iv. Platform independent:
Visual basic application can be easily moved to different computer system.
v. Object oriented:
Program in visual basic is centred on creating object manipulating object and making object work together.
It has networking capability that is inherently integrated into it.
The system flowchart will gives a summary representation or specification of the overall system while the program flowchart gives detail representation of the overall system.
Figure 1: Basic Criminal Details
This figure above loads a case in to the system and file it. It also keeps and make sure that records are not duplicate and are filed in order or sequence.
Figure 2: Local Finger Print Match.
The above flowchart shoes how the system compares suspect finger print with the object of evidence against the suspect. This chat check for the finger print within the local system.
Figure 3: Online Check for verification
This system is design so that if the suspect finger print is not ithin the local database of the system it can check online (other biometrics database have citizens metrics print e.g Banks).
Figure 4: Search by input data.
Software and Hardware Specification
Windows XP (SP2)
Microsoft Office Access 2003
VB, VB.NET (Microsoft Visual Studio 2013)
Microsoft IIS 5.1
Microsoft Office Word 2003EDGE Diagrammer − Version 5.0
Windows Compatible Ethernet Card
1280 x 800, True Colors Recommended
1MB L2 Cache
Microsoft Mouse or Compatible Device