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Design and Implementation of a Computerized System for the Management of Drug Information

Design and Implementation of a Computerized System for the Management of Drug Information

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Reference ID: PS-5029-TM

DEDICATION

This research material titled “Design and Implementation of a Computerized System for the Management of Drug Information” is dedicated to God for his enabling grace, and to all computer enthusiasts who contributed to make life a pleasant experience during my research documentation.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I extend my sincere gratitude to all those who contributed to the completion of this project. Special thanks to my Supervisor (Name of your Supervisor), the Head of Department (Name of your HOD), the Lecturers in the department of Computer Science (CS), Book Authors and Profound Scholars of existing or related project material on “Design and Implementation of a Computerized System for the Management of Drug Information” for their invaluable guidance, support, and expertise throughout the journey.

I am also grateful to your study area (mention any funding organizations, if applicable) for their financial assistance. This research would not have been possible without the encouragement and assistance of some stakeholders (mention any mentors, teachers, or colleagues). Additionally, I would like to acknowledge the understanding and patience of my family and friends during this endeavor. Your unwavering support has been a constant source of motivation. Thank you all for being part of this meaningful endeavor.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PRELIMINARY PAGES


CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION


    CHAPTER TWO

    LITERATURE REVIEW

    • 2.1 Introduction

    CHAPTER THREE

    SYSTEM ANALYSIS AND DESIGN

    • 3.1 Methodology Adopted
    • 3.1.1 Problem Identification Using SSADM
    • 3.2 Analysis of the Existing System
    • 3.2.1 Dataflow of the Existing System
    • 3.2.2 Disadvantages Of The Existing System
    • 3.2.3 Weakness of the existing System
    • 3.3 Feasibility Study
    • 3.3.1 Economic Feasibility
    • 3.3.2 Technical Feasibility
    • 3.3.3 Operational Feasibility
    • 3.4 Analysis of the Proposed System
    • 3.4.1 Data Flow Diagram of the Proposed System
    • 3.4.2 Advantages of the Proposed System
    • 3.4.3 Justification of the Proposed System
    • 3.5 Functional Requirements
    • 3.5.1 Use Case Diagram Of The Admin / User Privileges
    • 3.6 Data Requirements
    • 3.7 High Level Model of the Proposed System

    CHAPTER FOUR

    SYSTEM DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION

    • 4.1 Objectives of the Design
    • 4.2 Cohesion and Decomposition High level Model
    • 4.3 Control Center / Overall Dataflow Diagram
    • 4.3.1 Proposed System Operation Flowchart
    • 4.4 System Specification and Design
    • 4.4.1 Input and Output Specification
    • 4.4.2 Database Specification and Design
    • 4.4.3 Data Dictionary
    • 4.5 Choice and Justification of Programming Language
    • 4.6 Program Documentation
    • 4.7 Implementation Techniques
    • 4.7.1 System Testing
    • 4.8 Programming Module Specification
    • 4.8.1 Installation
    • 4.9 Computer Hardware Minimum Requirement
    • 4.10 Software Requirement
    • 4.11 Personnel / User Training
    • 4.12 File Maintenance Module

    CHAPTER FIVE

    SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

    • 5.1 Introduction
    • 5.2 Summary
    • 5.3 Conclusion
    • 5.4 Recommendation

    REFERENCES

    APPENDIX A - “SOURCE CODE”

    APPENDIX B - “OBJECT PROGRAM”

    ABSTRACT

    Computerized System for the Management of Drug Information enables authorized users to access, manage, share and safeguard patients’ medication. It can reduce prescription errors resulting in fewer adverse drug events and reduced hospitalizations. The aim of this study is to design and implement A Computerized System for the Management of Drug Information. In achieving this aim, the following specific objectives were laid out to design and develop an application software that will enable the end-users to order for drugs without mistake of procuring more than required, and ensure accurate keeping of records of drugs. The motivation that led to the implementation of the proposed system is that people die as a result of wrong self administration of drugs because they are not informed fully about the side effect of the drugs and also not knowing the specified age bracket that is allowed to take the specified drugs. Other motivation issues are outline at the statement of problems section.

    The methodology adopted in this study is the structured system analysis and design methodology (SSADM) which is a technical approach for analyzing and designing an application or system by applying object throughout the software development process. The programming language used is HTML, CSS, JAVASCRIPT, PHP, SQL and JQUERY. The reason why web programming languages was used is because, it is platform independent and it is a web based application. The proposed system implementation will be beneficial to individuals such as students, pharmacist and drug prescribers by providing accurate and complete information about each drug or medicine before self medication takes place. Also, it will provide a data base for stock taking of drugs procured and dispensed any moment. The expected result is an Computerized Drug Information Management System that will help provide enough prescriptive information about drugs and the system will generates an accurate drug information like drug usage, drug age bracket, time of drug intake, as well as the caution and advice.


    Design and Implementation of a Computerized System for the Management of Drug Information

    CHAPTER ONE

    1.1 Introduction

    Computerization is defined as the control of processes by computers and its peripherals. Today it would be difficult to think of any process, business or action that could not have profited from the numerous benefits of the computer system. Controlling process or devices with computer started long ago since the invention of computer. in the 20th century inventors tried to make processes easier with the use of computers. Secondly computerization has been greatly applied or used in controlling process that requires frequent action such as drug procurement, drug management, drug tracking and drug distributions in hospital management information system in pharmacy departments of hospitals. Drug information system reduces the need to call doctors with questions about hand-written prescriptions. DIMS supports storage and retrieval of patient prescription and medication information, and may provide application services supporting dispensing activities such as drug-usage evaluation.

    As a prelude to other parts of this study, this chapter will discuss the background upon which this study was initiated, the statement of problems that led to this study, the Aim and Objectives of the study. Others are Significance of the study, Scope of work, Limitation of the study and Definition of technical terms.


    1.2 Background of Study

    Drug Information Management System provides drugs data for the doctors and pharmacists to be referred. The drug data include the drug categories, trade name, generic name, manufactured company, drug contents, indications, dosage, contradiction, special precaution, drug adverse reaction and drug interaction. All these data are useful for doctors and pharmacists. Doctors and pharmacist in the hospital nowadays still referred the drug data in manual approach. Based on the problems that occur while using books as a drug references by doctors and pharmacists, the main factor has been detected that contribute the problems. The main factor is that, there is no electronic system for drug references that can be viewed by doctors and pharmacists. And if any updates for the latest drug data must be made, there is no faster way to update it so that the doctors and pharmacist can only refer to the up to date drug data as their references. This Drug Information Management System is useful for the alternative therapy recommendation for patients. it aid to avoid drug toxicity based on the drug contents and the expired date, provide list of poison drugs and educate the patients who are not in the medical field about the drug references to increase their caution about the specific drug especially for the patient with chronic diseases. It also provides instruction for the drug dosage that have to be taken for adult and children. Computerized Drug Information Management System of World Health Organization shows various drugs that one can purchase. It records the available drugs, the sold drugs and the money collected from the sold drug. It involves database programming to keep track of the event of the system. The program is also implemented using web based program.

    The overall aim of this project is to optimize time and material in the processing of data needed for effective operation of large pharmacy department of a hospital. By this approach, data integrity, data redundancy, and consistency will be ensured. Drugs are the chemical substances that are administered to patients for curative purposes and prophylaxis. It can also be known as a medicine, because it is the essential part of peoples care. The ability of the computer to store and retrieve information at a very fast and efficient rate makes its application useful in management operations. Drug management involves drug procurement, drug distribution, drug tracking and its information management. Drug distribution is concerned with distribution of drugs within the different medical units or departments in a hospital, while drug procurement is concerned with the purchasing activities of the drugs by the pharmacy department of the hospital. in the same vein, drug tracking is concern with the continuous monitoring of the actual quantity of drugs held in the hospital pharmacy or any other drug warehouse /store. It also controls the stock level.

    Pharmaceutical unit in a hospital is concerned with drug management activities. They carry out the responsibility of making appropriate selection and drugs used by formulating an annual, monthly, weekly or daily list of drugs requirement and management reports. However, in some hospitals today, some pharmacists still use the manual system of operation which can lead to inappropriate drug management errors due to problems of handling voluminous file within a short period of time. This could make data to be easily inaccessible and also delivery of drugs can lead to misplacement of patients’ files.

    A lot of people have been suffering as a result of ignorance because they take drugs without knowing the side effect of the drug. People have died because of ignorance of taking wrong drugs at the wrong time. Drug Information Management System gives details about the drugs and the side effect of any drugs, so that any drugs been given to a patient he/she will know whether the drugs is reacting in their body system or not. The effect of this is the abuse of drugs which weakened immune system, increasing the risk of illness and infection. It also led to death and abdominal pain which can lead to changes in appetite and weight loss.

    It is against the background that the developments of this software to enable people have access to drug related information, so the software users should not give false information that is out of the software deeds. This research work is based on providing adequate information about drugs. At the end of this project, the drug information software will be able to Enable the end-users to order for drugs without mistake of procuring more than required.

    The Disclaimer alert of the Drug Information Management System is beyond under aged or unqualified personnel using the software for his/her personal health advantage. Ensure to read and ask qualified expert about any statement or fact that is not familiar or known to you, otherwise this software would not be held in contempt for any negative reason that is not within the scope of study.


    1.3 Statement of Problem

    Investigation revealed that drug procurement, tracking, distribution and information management in this regard are routine processes carried out in various hospitals across Nigeria. It is a common place to observe that these routine processes are still preformed manually or are minimally computerized even in our Teaching Hospitals. This manual approach to these routine operations has a lot of problems associated with it, ranging from poor handling of drug data of patients, lack of good storage information system for drugs and drug dispensary, delays, to the difficulty in retrieving information on drugs and patients’ records. In view of all these problems, it becomes necessary to develop a computer based drug information management system and distribution tracking system. This is what this research project is set to address by computerizing the routine processes in our hospitals and in particular that of Pharmacy Department of UNTH Enugu.


    1.4 Aim and Objectives of the Study

    The aim of this study is to design and implement a Computerized System for the Management of Drug Information. In achieving this aim, the following specific objectives were laid out as follows to design and develop an application software that will:

    1. Enable the end-users to order for drugs without mistake of procuring more than required;
    2. Ensure accurate keeping of records of drugs; and
    3. Assist the system user to take good stock of drugs and prevent dispensary of expired drugs.

    1.5 Significance of Study

    The significance derivable from this work includes the following:

    1. It will provide reliable healthcare services.
    2. It will guarantee hospital management and patients of genuine and safe drugs.
    3. It will ensure an efficient and standard drug dispensary system.
    4. It will provide a data base for stock taking of drugs procured and dispensed any moment.

    Finally, this system when completed and implemented it will help provide adequate information about most commonly used drugs, and it will be beneficial to individuals such as students, pharmacist and drug prescribers by providing accurate and complete information about each drug or medicine before self medication takes place.


    1.6 Scope of the study

    The scope of this research is focused on the Design and Implementation of a Computerized System for the Management of Drug Information. This research work will cover only the Pharmaceutical Department of the University of Nigerian Teaching Hospital (UNTH) Enugu. It will present an up to date and comprehensive design of the following:

    1. Planning and control system which includes inventory control and drug distribution
    2. Drug procurement procedure in a hospital.
    3. The expiry status of each drugs at any point in time
    4. The database of all types and names of some drugs that would be store and operate on.

    1.7 Limitations of the Study

    During the course of this study, many things militated against its completion, some of which are:

    1. Time Constraint: The time frame given to accomplish this project was very short due to school academic calendar and it was carried out under pressure which made the researcher not to implement some necessary features.
    2. Establishment Policies: Establishment policies posed a serious limitation as most staffs are not ready to release information needed for this project work. There were lots of information needed from the staffs of this institution to enhance the study which took them time to release or they did not release at all for security purposes, hence the scope was reduced.
    3. Research Material: availability of research material is a major setback to the scope of the study.
    4. Financial Constraint: Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet).

    1.8 Assumption

    It is assumed that all the information gathered with the respect to inventory control is correct as implemented by the university of Nigerian teaching hospital (UNTH) Enugu.


    1.9 Definition of Terms

    Database:

    It is a collection of logically related data to meet the information need of organization.

    DBMS:

    Database Management Software that enable the user to define, maintain Control the database.

    Application Program:

    It is a computer program that interacts with the database.

    Menu:

    This is a list of options presented on the screen with each option identified by short code followed by longer description of its purposes.

    CHAPTER TWO

    2.0 Literature Review

    2.1 Introduction

    This chapter focuses on the review of related literature. A literature review includes the current knowledge as well as theoretical and methodological contributions to a particular topic. It documents the state of the art with respect to the topic you are writing. It surveys the literature in the topic selected. In this research work the literature review includes the …

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