Since the introduction of electronic devices into the medical world, the functions and operations of the medical world have been easy with most of the electronically device that are in place to assist the medical personnel in there diagnosis and analysis of patients in various medical illness. Now doctors and nurses or any medical personnel can now carry out a test on a patient and get the analysis from the device used in diagnosing the patience which are electronic apparatus or device, giving numerous advantages over the previous daces of manual means of diagnosing breast cancer and the need for the development of a system that can enhance diagnosis prescription.
As a prelude to other parts of this study, this chapter will discuss the background upon which this study was initiated, the statement of problems that led to this study, the Aim and Objectives of the study. Others are Significance of the study, Scope of work, Limitations of the Study and Definition of technical terms.
1.2 Background of Study
Breast cancer was traced right back to ancient Egypt, with the earliest recorded case described on the 1600 BC Edwin Smith Papyrus. Because breast cancer is quite outwardly visible in its most advanced state (seldom reached today thanks to modern medicine) it frequently captured the vision and imagination of our ancestors enough for them to record it. In 2011, approximately 230,000 cases of invasive breast cancer were diagnosed among women in the United States. Although there is no cure for breast cancer, there is hope. October is Breast Cancer Awareness Month and in support of a cure, thousands of athletes come together at races and events like these. From group rides to road races, these events will inspire, educate, empower and help bring a cure a little closer.
Over the year the leading cause of death in women aged between 35-54 years is breast cancer and second to cardio vascular disease in order women (Logan 1975). Mortality and incidence rate vary throughout the world with England and wale making first and us fourteen developing countries like Nigeria not left. In fact and two leading cancer sites are breast and lung accounting for about 25% of all cancer such a common disease in women and 1 and 12 women is affected in the U.S and 1 Nigeria. However its not surprising that there exist and long list of potential risk factor these include nutrition Geography Ethic factor aging factor, age of first birth being breast disorder decrease parity, unopposed ovarian cycling menstrual experience lactation experience, viral hypothesis however hereditary and family history of breast cancer are now considered to be two most important risk factor majority of women now come to medical attention in developing countries than in developing countries consequences the current emphasis is on prevention and early diagnosis of breast cancer so as to minimizes the death rate cause by it.
1.3 Statement of Problem
The problems encountered by the existing system include the following:
- People die as a result of wrong self-medication or delayed diagnosis.
- A lot of people that visit the laboratory for diagnosis, experience shortage of finance as a result of wrong diagnosis.
- Some patients complain of not meeting the doctors when they visit the laboratory, hence, their illness becomes critical.
1.4 Aim and Objectives of the Study
The main aim of this study is to Design and Implement an Expert System in Diagnosis and Treatment of Breast Cancer. In achieving this aim, the new system will accomplish the following objectives through the design of a system that will:
- Reduce the risks associated with self-medication, wrong and delayed diagnosis.
- Reduce the stress and inconveniences experienced by potential patients and not meeting with the doctor on the days of visit.
- Help return the skills of an expert medical doctor in event of eventualities.
- Formulate an intelligence diagnosis system and easy diagnosis of breast cancer (dr cr)
- Demonstrate the use of logic programmes as a logical tool for developing intelligent system.
1.5 Significance of Study
With the growth in information technology, the study offers numerous benefits to the Federal Medical Centre and to any Medical Centre that deals on patient breast cancer diagnosis. This system when completed and implemented will help allocate the stress of the doctors and other health personnel involved in analysis and prescription of cancer cases as some of the prescription will now be done by the new system when a patient fills in the correct information needed. It also reduces the risk of delayed diagnoses and self-medication which can degenerate the problem.
Besides, the project report will help subsequent researchers who are interested in the topic or related topic as a reference material.
1.6 Scope of Study
This research work will concentrate on breast cancer detection, treatment and diagnosis system using Federal Medical Center (FMC) Owerri as a case study. The proposed system developed will only cover patient with symptoms for diagnosis and control solutions like drug control and supplement there will be room for diagnosing patient with various kind of symptoms with remedial solution and advice.
1.7 Limitations of the Study
During the course of this study, many things militated against its completion, some of which are:
- Time Constraint: The time frame given to accomplish this project was very short due to school academic calendar and it was carried out under pressure which made the researcher not to implement some necessary features.
- Establishment Policies: Establishment policies posed a serious limitation as most staffs are not ready to release information needed for this project work. There were lots of information needed from the staffs of this institution to enhance the study which took them time to release or they did not release at all for security purposes, hence the scope was reduced.
- Research material: availability of research material is a major setback to the scope of the study.
- Frequent power failure: This made the researcher append more money on fuel to ensure sustainable power.
- Financial Constraint: Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet).
1.8 Definition of Terms
Information System: It is a collection of procedures, people, Instructions and equipment to produce information in a useful form.
Technology: It is study of techniques or process of mobilizing Resource (such as information) for accomplishing objectives that benefits man and his environment.
Information: Information can be defined as the process of gathering, transmitting, receiving, storing and retrieving data or several items put together to convey a desired message.
Databases: A systematically arranged collection of computer data, structured so that it can be automatically retrieved or manipulated. It is also called databank.
CADx: Computer-Aided Diagnosis
CADe: Computer-Aided Detection
Virus: Is a small infectious agent that replicated only inside the living cells of other organisms.
Primate: Is any mammal of the group that includes the lemurs, Lories, tarsiers, monkeys, apes and humans
Symptoms: Is the sign given when a particular thing want to happen
Vaccines: Are things you do to keep something away or to prevent a disease.
Diagnosis: The act or process of identifying or determining the nature and cause of a disease injury through evaluation, examination review of a patient laboratory data
PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction): is a biochemical technology in molecular biology use to amplify a single copy or a few copy of a piece of DNA across several orders of magnitude, generating thousands to millions of copies of particular DNA sequence.