1.1 Background Of The Study
Every business unit has certain goals and objectives to accomplish no matter size and scope management has the responsibility of establishing, maintaining a goal of its objectives.
The role is not an easy one especially in organizations that are large in size and scope. It is not possible to exercise first hand supervision of operations as such, the installation of internal control system as an indispensable aid to efficient management is inevitable.
According to Pyle, and Larson, (1981), Fundamental Accounting Principles traced the origin of internal control to the complexity of modern business techniques. The native and to be adopted.
Although effect system may be operated, in large companies, but smaller enterprises may have to rely less on formal controls due to personal involvement of management in the enterprise itself.
Internal control is very necessary for every business unit whether large, medium or small. It does not only increase the efficiency of business, but also helps to self-guard the assets and secure accuracy of the record against error. From textbooks and research work done by other people on this, it is generally accepted that internal control is an indispensable aid to efficient management due to the Fact that it provides assurance to management even to depend on the accounting data used in decision making. It keeps management informed if the financial position is sound.
Internal control is as important as the organization itself and should be carefully designed and effectively carried out. Failure to do this results in creation of loopholes, which encourages all forms of fraud. At this point, it is necessary to define internal control.
According to auditing standard guidelines, it is the whole system of control, financial and otherwise established by the management in order to carry out the business of the enterprise in an orderly and efficient policies, safeguard the assets and secure accuracy of the records, internal controls is divided into accounting control and administrative controls and it is explain thus according to Hangmen and Foster (1990-1910). Accounting control comprises the method and procedures that are mainly concerned with the authorization of transactions, the safe-guarding of assets and the accuracy of the accounting records. Good accounting controls help increase efficiency; they help decrease waste, unintentional errors and fraud. Administrative controls Comprises the plan of organization and all management planning and control of operation.
First bank Nigeria Plc I one of the universal banks in Nigeria. It was founded in the in the year 1894, more than a century ago, by Sir Alfred Jones a shipping magnate form Liverpool, the bank started out as a small operation in the office of Elder Dempter and company in Lagos. They render Universal banking services to the public some of which are acceptance of cash lodgments divided warrants and savings deposit.
They were among the first banks that introduced western Union Money Transfer Services to the public. Another interesting aspect 0f services which the researcher found they render to the public the Automated Teller Machine (ATM) services, which they offer to the public recently. These three services, you need not to have account with them to affect such transactions.
Telegraphic transfer is an aspect of transaction where by a customer or potential customer come up to a bank and request for a transfer of fund to another branch of first bank in another town which if affected by Fax and receives a spontaneous remittance at the correspondence branch. Equally they have the same effect of transfer, but in the case of draft the purchaser handles the drafts to the paying branch unlike the telegraphic transfer whereby the fund is already at the branch. Domestic transfer is that the fund telegraph transfers and drafts are paid to the specific named branch, where as the western Union transfer is paid at any first bank branch.
On a daily basis the open more than fifty (50) new savings bank account, and their internal rate is as stipulated by the central bank of Nigeria (CBN).
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Every financial institution strives for fair public recommendation, efficiency, strong management and profitability. However, with complexities in modern day business network, overwhelming introduction of information technology and other human Factors, these objectives seems unachievable except with the infusion of strong internal control system into the main stream of the organization process.
No internal control system can be itself guaranteed efficiency administration completeness and accuracy of records. This could be attributed to:
- Employment of incomplete and dishonest personnel
- Inadequate documents and records
- Lack of proper procedures for records keeping
1.3 Objective Of The Study
The aim of this study is to achieve the following:
- To review the major control measure that could be adopted by the management
- To evaluate and measure the effectiveness of internal control system in the organization
- To discuss the factors that is responsible for not achieving the goals.
- To recommend solutions that might help in combating identified problems.
1.4 Research Questions
The following questions were mapped out to guide the research and answers form the question will enable the researcher to draw reasonable conclusion.
- Does your bank have proper segregation and definition of duties and responsibilities at all levels?
- Are there limitations to the attainment of the objectives of internal control system?
- Do you think the system of internal control can ever be effective considering the limitations?
1.5 Statement Of The Hypothesis
Drawing form the statement of problem, the hypothesis for this study is as follows:
Ho: Efficient internal control system does not enhance adherence to proper procedure for authorization and approvals.
Hi: Efficiency of internal control system adherence to proper procedure for authorized and approval
Ho: There is no limitation to the attainment of internal control system in the banking industry
Hi: limitation exist to the attainment of internal control system in the banking industry
1.6 Significance Of The Study
The researcher has in mind that this study will go along way in helping especially management and student as this will serve as reference material for further study of the topic.
To enable those in the field of academic to draw a strong conclusion about assertion hence, helping them put more effort in technique internal control as indispensable techniques for efficient management.
The perceived role of effective internal control system in minimizing of not eradicating the limiting factors of most business organization
1.7 Scope Of The Study
This research work looks into internal control in all ramifications but rather limited to the effectiveness of internal control. In Nigeria banking industry as it relevant to the overall organizational and economic performance.
Due to the difficulties in collecting the data and time constraints as well, the researcher divided to narrow the scope to First bank of Nigeria Plc factory road Aba.
1.8 Limitation Of The Study
Although the study was a successful one, some difficulties were encountered during the course of the study (obtaining the necessary information) which affected the success of the study such as:
- Time constraints: It took a lot of time to find out relevant materials and data on the subject matter
- Financial constraints: Lost of transportation to the institution and other places that have relevant information and data needed to carryout this study was high.
- Reluctance to disclose information: Some of the required information was not fully obtained because of the fear of exposing, confidential information and mismanagement of vital information.
1.9 Definition Of Terms
Internal Control: This is the “whole system of control, financial and otherwise established by the management in order to carry out the business of the enterprise in an orderly and efficient manner ensuring adherence to management polices, safeguard the assets and secure as afar as possible the completeness and accuracy of the records.
Efficiency: This is concerned with effective output with out unnecessary waste of resources.
Effectiveness: This is concerned with doing the right thing in order to achieve the aim and goals.
Internal Audit: This is an independent appeal but function within and organization for the review of system of controls and the quality of performance as a service to the organization.
Management: The effective and efficient utilization of human and non-human resources to achieve organizational goals.
Financial Controls: This is the process which ensures that financial resources are obtained economically and utilized efficiently and effectively in the attainment of the desire goals.