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Evaluating the Effects of Cutting Type and Different Rooting Media on the Vegetative Propagation of African Black Pepper

Evaluating the Effects of Cutting Type and Different Rooting Media on the Vegetative Propagation of African Black Pepper

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Reference ID: PS-50-TM

DEDICATION

This research material titled “Evaluating the Effects of Cutting Type and Different Rooting Media on the Vegetative Propagation of African Black Pepper” is dedicated to God for his enabling grace, and to all computer enthusiasts who contributed to make life a pleasant experience during my research documentation.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I extend my sincere gratitude to all those who contributed to the completion of this project. Special thanks to my Supervisor (Name of your Supervisor), the Head of Department (Name of your HOD), the Lecturers in the department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Book Authors and Profound Scholars of existing or related project material on “Evaluating the Effects of Cutting Type and Different Rooting Media on the Vegetative Propagation of African Black Pepper” for their invaluable guidance, support, and expertise throughout the journey.

I am also grateful to your study area (mention any funding organizations, if applicable) for their financial assistance. This research would not have been possible without the encouragement and assistance of some stakeholders (mention any mentors, teachers, or colleagues). Additionally, I would like to acknowledge the understanding and patience of my family and friends during this endeavor. Your unwavering support has been a constant source of motivation. Thank you all for being part of this meaningful endeavor.


Evaluating the Effects of Cutting Type and Different Rooting Media on the Vegetative Propagation of African Black Pepper

CHAPTER ONE

1.1 Introduction

Piper guineense L. commonly referred to as African black pepper is a climbing perennial plant of the family Piperaceae. The plant belongs to the group of pepper called false cubebs (Buzzanell and Gray, 1995) and the berries are often used as substitutes for the edible black pepper (Piper nigrum)and for the most closely related cubebs pepper (Piper cubeba). African black pepper is a native of tropical regionof central and western African and is semi-cultivated in countries such as Nigeria where the leaves and fruits (berries) are sold in markets as condiment and also for food flavor (Joan and Michihol, 2013). It is known as Uziza in Igbo and Iyere in Yoruba, other common names are Benins pepper, Guinea pepper and false cubeb. It grows in evergreen rainforest edges usually in wet places, gallery forest along rocky rivers of an elevation of 750-1650mm.

The leaves have pungent taste and pleasant aroma when crushed (Tapsell and Hemphill, 2006). The oleiferous leaves are elliptic in shape, about 5cm long and 7cm broad. The leaves have a peppery taste, pale greenish color when fresh and darker green when dried. The flowers are small, borne on common stalks as cluster opposite the leaves or at the terminals of the stem and branches. The African black pepper is a protogynous plant. The flower develop first in the androecium (male organ of the flower) than in the gynoecium (female organ of the flower) (Okigbo and Igwe, 2007). Stamens open up 5-8 days after the stigma is receptive. In Nigeria, African black pepper is highly spicy plant and parts of the various plants are cultivated for their aromatic pungent. They are also classified into tiny wild fruits, nuts, herbs and leafy vegetable having heart-shaped leaves and oval petiole (Iwara and Uboh, 2013).

As a prelude to other parts of this study, this chapter will discuss the background upon which this study was initiated, the statement of problems that led to this study, the Aim and Objectives of the study. Others are Significance of the study, Scope of work, Research hypothesis and questions, Limitation of the study and Definition of technical terms.

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 Literature Review

2.1 Introduction

This chapter focuses on the review of related literature. A literature review includes the current knowledge as well as theoretical and methodological contributions to a particular topic. It documents the state of the art with respect to the topic you are writing. It surveys the literature in the topic selected. In this research work the literature review includes the …

Summary Headlines for Evaluating the Effects of Cutting Type and Different Rooting Media on the Vegetative Propagation of African Black Pepper



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