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Evaluation of Thyroid Dysfunction in Type 2 Diabetic Patients
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Evaluation of Thyroid Dysfunction in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

Project / Seminar Material
Reference ID: PS-278-TM

DEDICATION

This research work titled "Evaluation of Thyroid Dysfunction in Type 2 Diabetic Patients" is dedicated to God for his enabling grace and to all computer enthusiasts who help to make life a pleasant experience.



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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I owe my indebtedness to my Supervisor (Name of your Supervisor), the Head of Department (Name of your HOD), the Lecturers in the department of Biochemistry, Book Authors and Profound Scholars of existing/related research work for your moral support that facilitated the successful completion of my (Tertiary Institution level). I am grateful to God Almighty and my parent for their financial support in my career. I really appreciate you all for everything, Thank you very much.



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Evaluation of Thyroid Dysfunction in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Preliminary Pages

Chapter One

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background …

Chapter Two

Literature Review

  • 2.1 Introduction

Chapter Three

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Introduction

Chapter Four

Results and Discussion

  • 4.1 Introduction

Chapter Five

Summary, Conclusion, and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Summary
  • 5.3 Conclusion
  • 5.4 Recommendation

References




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ABSTRACT

Diabetes Mellitus (DM) and Thyroid Dysfunction (TD) are the two most common endocrinopathies seen in general population. Type 2 diabetes mellitus(T2DM) is commonly associated with altered thyroid function. The aim of the research is to evaluate TD in patients with T2DM attending Endocrinology Clinic of UsmanuDanfodiyo University Teaching Hospital,Sokoto.Blood samples were collected from 80 Type 2 diabetic patients and 80 non diabetic (control) and analyze for fasting blood sugar (FBS), glycatedhemoglobin (HbA1c),thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH),triiodothyrorine (T3),thyroxin (T4), cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein (HDL-C)and low density lipoproteins(LDL-C).The levels, of FBS, HbA1c,Cholesterol, TG and LDL-C were observed to be significantly high and the level of HDL-C was significantly low in diabetics as compared to control(non diabetic patients).The levels of T3 and T4 were significantly low while the level of TSH was significantly high in Type 2 diabetics as compared to non diabetics.Pearson correlation shows a very strong positive relationship between FBS and HbA1c and weak positive relationship between these sugars and Thyroid hormones(TSH,T3,andT4). Thyroid dysfunction may complicates metabolic control in diabetes mellitus (DM). It is therefore patients to recognize and where necessary treat thyroid dysfunction in order to stabilize metabolic control.




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Evaluation of Thyroid Dysfunction in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 Introduction
Diabetes mellitus (DM) and thyroid dysfunction (TD) are the two most common endocrine disorders seen in adult population(Diezet al., 2011).The prevalence of Type2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is rising faster than any other form of diabetes because of increased urbanization which encourages development of obesity due to reduced physical activities, increase consumption of refined foods and snacks globally (Zimmet, 1999; Zimmetet al., 2001).Thyroid hormones, namely Triiodothyronine (T3) and Thyroxine (T4); either or both of which may be elevated or reduced have both direct and indirect effect on blood glucose homeostasis (Udionget al.,2007).
Elevated levels of free circulating thyroid hormones (hyperthyroidism) produce hyperglycemia by causing polyphagia,enhancing glucose absorption from gastro-intestinal tract, accelerating insulin degradation and stimulating glycogenolysis (Webb,2004).Reduced level of the hormones hypothyroidism may cause hypoglycemia (Webb,2004; Cooper, 2003).
Hypothyroidism, the most commonly diagnosed thyroid dysfunction has greater implications for Type2 diabetic in whom there is pre-existing dyslipidemia and risk of cardiovascular disease (Cooper,2003;Rama et al; 2003; Johnson, 2006).Moreover, thyroid hormones have significant effects on the synthesis, mobilization and metabolism of lipid (Dias et al., 2011; Murray et al., 2000).

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 Literature Review

2.1 Introduction

This chapter focuses on the review of related literature. A literature review includes the current knowledge as well as theoretical and methodological contributions to a particular topic. It documents the state of the art with respect to the topic you are writing. It surveys the literature in the topic selected. In this research work the literature review includes the …

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Proposal Writing Format under Biochemistry


Evaluation of Thyroid Dysfunction in Type 2 Diabetic Patients is a proposal topic for final year research work, which comprises the major and elective project proposal writing sections for Evaluation of Thyroid Dysfunction in Type 2 Diabetic Patients research work.

Major Sections
  • Motivation for Embarking on the Project

  • Brief Background of Study

  • Statement of Problems

  • Aim of the Study

  • Specific Objectives of the Study

  • Significance of the Study (Who benefits from the project and how?)

Elective Sections
  • Relevant Research Questions

  • Relevant Research Hypotheses


Defense Procedure for Biochemistry Researchers


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  • Abstract

CHAPTER ONE

  • Motivation / Statement of Problems
  • Aims & Objective of Study
  • Scope of Study
  • Significance of Study

CHAPTER TWO

  • State two or more citation from your review of related literature.

CHAPTER THREE

  • Know the methodologies, tools and techniques used.

CHAPTER FOUR

  • Justification of your work and things to adhered to before using the system or research work.

CHAPTER FIVE

  • Conclusion and Recommendation

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