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Knowledge Attitude and Practice Concerning Cervical Cancer Screening Among Market Women

Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Concerning Cervical Cancer Screening Among Market Women

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Reference ID: PS-623-TM

DEDICATION

This research material titled “Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Concerning Cervical Cancer Screening Among Market Women” is dedicated to God for his enabling grace, and to all computer enthusiasts who contributed to make life a pleasant experience during my research documentation.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I extend my sincere gratitude to all those who contributed to the completion of this project. Special thanks to my Supervisor (Name of your Supervisor), the Head of Department (Name of your HOD), the Lecturers in the department of Public Health, Book Authors and Profound Scholars of existing or related project material on “Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Concerning Cervical Cancer Screening Among Market Women” for their invaluable guidance, support, and expertise throughout the journey.

I am also grateful to your study area (mention any funding organizations, if applicable) for their financial assistance. This research would not have been possible without the encouragement and assistance of some stakeholders (mention any mentors, teachers, or colleagues). Additionally, I would like to acknowledge the understanding and patience of my family and friends during this endeavor. Your unwavering support has been a constant source of motivation. Thank you all for being part of this meaningful endeavor.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PRELIMINARY PAGES


CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION


    CHAPTER TWO

    LITERATURE REVIEW

    • 2.1 Introduction
    • 2.2 Conceptual Review
    • 2.3 Theoretical Framework
    • 2.4 Empirical Studies

    CHAPTER THREE

    RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

    • 3.1 Introduction
    • 3.2 Research Design
    • 3.3 Population of Study
    • 3.4 Sampling and Sampling Technique
    • 3.5 Validation of Research Instrument
    • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
    • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
    • 3.8 Questionnaire Administration
    • 3.9 Ethical Consideration
    • 3.10 Statistical Analysis

    CHAPTER FOUR

    DATA ANALYSIS, RESULT AND DISCUSSION

    • 4.1 Introduction
    • 4.2 Presentation and Analysis of Data
    • 4.3 Re-statement of Research Questions
    • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses
    • 4.5 Discussion of Findings

    CHAPTER FIVE

    SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

    • 5.1 Introduction
    • 5.2 Summary of Findings
    • 5.3 Conclusion
    • 5.4 Recommendation
    • 5.5 Suggestion for Further Study

    REFERENCES

    APPENDIX A - “QUESTIONNAIRE”

    ABSTRACT

    Cervical cancer is a spectrum that ranges from dysplasia to invasive cancer. The late stage of the disease result with distant metastasis involving surrounding tissues and deposits in organs like the liver, lungs and bones. Poor public health awareness has contributed to late diagnosis of this disease, therefore there is need to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice with regards to cervical cancer screening. Market women continue to be the economic driving force of families in many parts of Nigeria. The awareness will therefore reduce the burden of the disease. A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out by using systematic sampling to collect data through administered questionnaires to 253 market women in Yola metropolis. The result showed majority of the market women have heard about cervical cancer (74.0%), 74.9% of them heard about screening, there was also good attitude, however the practice was poor. Women with formal education have taken up cervical cancer screening than those with non formal education, it was statistically not significant (x2 = 4.248, P = 0.120). As only 72 women have carried out cervical cancer screening. The study established that level of knowledge on cervical cancer screening was high but practice was low as 28.5% of the respondents ever had cervical cancer screening. Therefore, sustained public health awareness should be encouraged in order to increase the utilization of screening service in all health facilities.


    Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Concerning Cervical Cancer Screening Among Market Women

    CHAPTER ONE

    1.0 Introduction

    Cervical Cancer

    Cervical cancer is a spectrum that ranges from Dysplasia to invasive cancer. Dysplasia describes an abnormal organization of cells i.e. premalignant changes in the squamous epithelium. It is graded as mild, moderate or severe. Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia is a closely related nomenclature that covers the entire spectrum of changes are graded CIN 1, CIN 2, and CIN 3 according to the third of the epithelium (Upper, Middle, Lower) respectively in which changes occur; corresponding to mild, moderate and severe1.

    Invasive cancer is characterized by invasion of deeper tissues. It usually takes three forms; fungating (commonest), ulcerating and infilterating. Histologically, 95% of cells are large cell type either keratinized (well differentiated) or non keratinized (moderately differentiated). Adenocarcinoma arises from endocervical glance, situated anywhere from the internal to the external os. The late stage of the disease usually results into distant metastasis but however, local spread can occur either upward to involve all the cervix, downward to extend into the vaginal vault, laterally, it involves the ureters and anteriolly to involve the bladder, posteriolly to involve the rectum. Lymphytic spread occurs early, while haematogenous spread occurs through systemic circulation mainly depositing in the liver, lungs and bones1.

    Pathogenesis of Cervical Cancer

    Cervical cancer arises in the so-called transformation zone of the uterine cervix. This is the area which undergoes physiological metaplasia from glandular to squamous epithelium at the onset of adolescence. Human Papiloma Virus (HPV) is very common after the onset of sexual activity, and when it persists, the viral oncoprotein produce perturbation of the cell-cycle controls.

    CHAPTER TWO

    2.0 Literature Review

    2.1 Introduction

    This chapter focuses on the review of related literature. A literature review includes the current knowledge as well as theoretical and methodological contributions to a particular topic. It documents the state of the art with respect to the topic you are writing. It surveys the literature in the topic selected. In this research work the literature review includes the …

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