1.1 Background of Study
According to Madehow (2021), Brass is a metal composed primarily of copper and zinc. Copper is the main component, and brass is usually classified as a copper alloy. The color of brass varies from a dark reddish brown to a light silvery yellow depending on the amount of zinc present; the more zinc, the lighter the color. Brass is stronger and harder than copper, but not as strong or hard as steel. It is easy to form into various shapes, a good conductor of heat, and generally resistant to corrosion from salt water. Because of these properties, brass is used to make pipes and tubes, weather-stripping and other architectural trim pieces, screws, radiators, musical instruments, and cartridge casings for firearms (Madehow, 2021).
Brass has long been a popular material for decoration for its bright gold-like appearance, e.g. for drawer pulls and doorknobs. It has also been widely used for all sorts of utensils due to many properties, such as low melting point, workability (both with hand tools and with modern turning and milling machines), durability, electrical and thermal conductivity. It is still commonly used in applications where corrosion resistance and low friction is required, such as locks, hinges, gears, bearings, ammunition casings, zippers, plumbing, hose couplings, valves, and electrical plugs and sockets. It is used extensively for musical instruments such as horns and bells, and also used as substitute of copper in making costume jewelry, fashion jewelry and other imitation jewelry (Wikipedia, 2021a).
Brass is a common copper alloy (Cu–Zn) and is widely used in daily life and industrial production because of its particular physical and mechanical properties, including its high thermal conductivity, low friction, good anti-corrosion ability, and good casting properties (Meran, 2006). As industry and technology develop, brass is expected to have even more applications. It is thus necessary to improve the properties of brass, such as its resistance to corrosion in seawater and its self-cleaning ability in dusty conditions so that it can be used in various harsh environments. Constructing superhydrophobic coatings on brass is an effective method for improving its properties and expanding its applications. However, few methods for preparing a superhydrophobic brass surface have been reported. Jie et al. used a combined approach for preparing a superhydrophobic surface via etching with an aqueous solution of FeCl3 for 45 min, heating at 350 0C for 25 min, and then modifying the surface with stearic acid (Jie et al., 2016). Ta et al. (2015) obtained a nanosecond laser textured superhydrophobic metallic surface using a fiber laser with a nominal beam spot of about 21 mm at a scanning speed of 75 mm s-1 (Ta et al., 2015). However, the low efficiency of these reported methods has restricted the widespread application of superhydrophobic brass surfaces. It is a practical and valuable task to improve the preparation efficiency.
In this study, a superhydrophobic surface was fabricated on brass using a simple micro-etching technique. Numerous rough structures on the micro/nanometer scale were achieved, and the free energy of the surface was reduced using stearic acid modification. The as-prepared surface had great mechanical durability and a self-cleaning ability. There was only slight damage on the substrate compared to other traditional etching methods used for fabricating superhydrophobic surfaces. Additionally, compared to other techniques for fabricating superhydrophobic brass surface, this preparation method is highly effective and easily controlled. We believe that the present method may expand the prospective applications of brass.
1.2 Statement of Problems
The study reveals the following problems associated with the modern brass fabricating factory;
- Lack proper estimation of the chemical composition, mechanical, surface morphology and thermal stability of brass fabrication industry,
- Inadequate information relating to the adverse effect of the micro-etching time on the CAs of the as prepared surfaces,
- Lack of proper and precise information relating to the process for fabricating a super hydrophobic surface on the brass substrate.
1.3 Objectives of Study
The aim of this study is to identify and determine the modern brass fabricating factory. Therefore, the objectives of this research were:
- To estimate the chemical composition, mechanical, surface morphology and thermal stability of brass fabrication industry,
- Provision of information relating to the adverse effect of the micro-etching time on the CAs of the as prepared surfaces,
- To provide proper and precise information relating to the process for fabricating a super hydrophobic surface on the brass substrate.
1.4 Significance of the Study
This research work when completed and implemented it will help provide proper and precise information relating to the process for fabricating a super hydrophobic surface on the brass substrate which will be beneficial to; architect and brass fabricating factory work.
Besides, the study will serve as reference material for subsequent researcher in the field or related topics.
1.5 Scope of Study
The study focuses on the modern brass fabricating factory, with emphasis on display techniques with emphasis on display techniques.
1.6 Limitations of the Study
During the course of this study, many things militated against its completion, some of which are:
- Time Constraint: The time frame given to accomplish this project was very short due to school academic calendar and it was carried out under pressure which made the researcher not to implement some necessary features.
- Establishment Policies: Establishment policies posed a serious limitation as most staffs are not ready to release information needed for this project work. There were lots of information needed from the staffs of this institution to enhance the study which took them time to release or they did not release at all for security purposes, hence the scope was reduced.
1.7 Definition of Technical Terms
Modern: Modern means relating to the present time, as in modern life. It also means up-to-date and not old, as in modern technology.
Brass: Brass is an alloy of copper and zinc, in proportions which can be varied to achieve varying mechanical and electrical properties.
Factory: A factory is an industrial site, often a complex consisting of several buildings filled with machinery, where workers manufacture items or operate machines which process each item into another.
Industry: An industry is a group of manufacturers or businesses that produce a particular kind of goods or services. Workers in the textile industry design, fabricate, and sell cloth.
Fabrication: Fabrication is the process of making something from semi-finished or raw materials rather than from ready-made components. In other words, it is the process of making something from scratch rather than assembling something.
Emphasis: Emphasis is special attention put on something to give it importance.
Display: Display, evince, exhibit, manifest mean to show or bring to the attention of another or others. To display is literally to spread something out so that it may be most completely and favorably seen: to display goods for sale. To exhibit is to display something in a show: to exhibit the best flowers.
Technique: Technique is a way of carrying out a particular task, especially the execution or performance of an artistic work or a scientific procedure.