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Output Proximate Composition Carbon to Nitrogen Ratio and Energy Value of Broiler and Caged Layers Litters

Output, Proximate Composition, Carbon to Nitrogen Ratio and Energy Value of Broiler and Caged Layers Litters

Project / Seminar Material
Reference ID: PS-89-TM

DEDICATION

This research material titled “Output, Proximate Composition, Carbon to Nitrogen Ratio and Energy Value of Broiler and Caged Layers Litters” is dedicated to God for his enabling grace, and to all computer enthusiasts who contributed to make life a pleasant experience during my research documentation.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I extend my sincere gratitude to all those who contributed to the completion of this project. Special thanks to my Supervisor (Name of your Supervisor), the Head of Department (Name of your HOD), the Lecturers in the department of Computer Science (CS), Book Authors and Profound Scholars of existing or related project material on “Output, Proximate Composition, Carbon to Nitrogen Ratio and Energy Value of Broiler and Caged Layers Litters” for their invaluable guidance, support, and expertise throughout the journey.

I am also grateful to your study area (mention any funding organizations, if applicable) for their financial assistance. This research would not have been possible without the encouragement and assistance of some stakeholders (mention any mentors, teachers, or colleagues). Additionally, I would like to acknowledge the understanding and patience of my family and friends during this endeavor. Your unwavering support has been a constant source of motivation. Thank you all for being part of this meaningful endeavor.


Output, Proximate Composition, Carbon to Nitrogen Ratio and Energy Value of Broiler and Caged Layers Litters

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PRELIMINARY PAGES


CHAPTER ONE

  • 1.0 Introduction
  • 1.1 Aim of the study
  • 1.2 Specific objectives

CHAPTER TWO

  • 2.0 Literature Review
  • 2.1 Excreta output of poultry
  • 2.2 Proximate composition of poultry litter
  • 2.3 Carbon to nitrogen ratio
  • 2.4 Gross energy of poultry litter
  • 2.5 Energy generation from poultry litter
  • 2.6 Benefits of Biofuels

CHAPTER THREE

  • 3.0 Materials and Methods
  • 3.1 Site of study and collection of samples
  • 3.2 Proximate Analysis
  • 3.3 Determination of dry matter/moisture content
  • 3.4 Determination of Crude Protein
  • 3.5 Ether Extract (Crude Fat)
  • 3.6 Crude fibre
  • 3.7 Ash content determination
  • 3.8 Determination of Gross energy
  • 3.9 Determination of Carbon content

CHAPTER FOUR

  • 4.0 Result
  • 4.1 Excreta output
  • 4.2 Proximate composition of broiler and layer litters (Dry matter basis)
  • 4.3 Gross energy of broiler and layer litters
  • 4.4 Carbon to nitrogen (C: N) ratio of broiler and layer litters

CHAPTER FIVE

  • 5.0 Discussion

CHAPTER SIX

  • 6.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
  • 6.1 Summary
  • 6.2 Conclusion
  • 6.3 Recommendation

REFERENCES

APPENDIX I

APPENDIX 2

APPENDIX 3

APPENDIX 4

APPENDIX 5

ABSTRACT

Studies were carried out to examine the output, proximate composition, carbon to nitrogen ratio and energy value of poultry litter. Excreta was collected from broiler chicken and caged layers. Excreta collected was subjected to gross chemical analysis and gross energy determination. The results showed the output of broilers to be 154g per bird per day while that of layer was 86.5g.Result obtained from the proximate analysis of the broiler and layer litters showed that broiler litter had a moisture content of 31.79% (68.1% dry matter), 10.06% crude protein, 6.1% ether extract, 16.62% crude fibre, 18% ash and 15.90% nitrogen free extract whereas layer litter had 29.06% moisture content (70.94% dry matter), 8.54% crude protein, 5.5% ether extract, 12.5% crude fibre, 23.75% ash, 20.65% nitrogen free extract on dry matter basis while on fresh basis (wet basis) broiler had 6.87% crude protein, 12.31% ash, 11.30% crude fibre, 4.16% ether extract and 10.83% nitrogen free extract whereas layer had 6.06% crude protein, 16.70% ash, 8.88% crude fibre, 3.90% ether extract and 14.93% nitrogen free extract. The average gross energy of broiler litters was 7.61MJ/kg while that of layer was 6.40MJ/kg, the carbon to nitrogen ratio of broiler litter was 17.53 while that of layer litter was 19.27 (on dry matter basis). On fresh basis the average gross energy of broiler litter was 5.19MJ/kg and that of layer was 4.36MJ/kg, the carbon to ratio of broiler was 11.92 while that of layer was 13.14.


Output, Proximate Composition, Carbon to Nitrogen Ratio and Energy Value of Broiler and Caged Layers Litters

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 Introduction

Poultry litter consists of bedding material mixed with manure, feathers, spilled water and waste feed accumulated during the production cycle of mainly broilers and layers (Blackhall, 2005). Poultry population is increasing because of the increase in demand for readily available protein and this has led to a corresponding increase in the amount of waste produced from intensive livestock production. In order to harmonize the interest of the poultry industry with current and further environmental concerns, environmental stewardship in animal agriculture is aimed at reducing the level of contamination of the environment by excreta (Siewerdt and Arun, 2007).

This can be achieved by treating poultry litter as a source of renewable energy (Kelleher, 2002). Poultry litter has significant energy value which is comparable to wood and half that of coal. As a result, power plants have been developed using poultry litter as fuel for generation of heat and for electricity production (Kelleher, 2002). Enormous amount of poultry litter produced annually has been traditionally utilized as fertilizer for crop production and also as supplements in livestock feed (Hall and denaley 1994). In addition, layer and broiler litters are potential sources of fly larva, pathogenic organisms and zoonotic diseases. Therefore they must be handled and used appropriately. These concerns necessitate the knowledge about the chemical composition of poultry litter (Martin, 2007).

Biofuel are a wide range of fuels which are derived from animal manure or plant materials or a mixture of both (Agbogbu and Mbaeyi, 2006). Biofuel includes any solid, liquid or gaseous industrial, commercial, domestic or agricultural waste. The solid biofuels includes fuelwood, wood pellets and charcoal. Liquid biofuels are biodiesel, ethanol, pyrolysis oils while gaseous biofuel include biogas (Energy Commission of Nigeria, 2010). Ojolo, Dinrifo and Adesuyi (2007) claimed that the Nigerian government and industries are in search of technologies that allow for more efficient and cost effective waste management. Continued increase in price of petroleum products such as kerosene, diesel and gas make it imperative the search for an effective alternative source of energy (Agbogbu and Mbaeyi, 2006). Anaerobic degradation of poultry litter by bacteria produces methane and carbon dioxide, which are good sources of hydrocarbon mostly used as fuel.

1.1 Aim of the study

The aim of the study is to analyze poultry litter for its gross chemical composition and energy value and to assess its potential.

Specific objectives

The specific objectives of the study include:

  1. To estimate the excreta output of broiler and layer bird within a specified period of time.
  2. To determine the proximate composition of broiler and layer litter.
  3. To determine the carbon content of layer and broiler litter.
  4. To determine the Carbon to Nitrogen (C:N) ratio of broiler and layer litter
  5. To determine the gross energy value of broiler and layer litter.

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 Literature Review

2.1 Introduction

This chapter focuses on the review of related literature. A literature review includes the current knowledge as well as theoretical and methodological contributions to a particular topic. It documents the state of the art with respect to the topic you are writing. It surveys the literature in the topic selected. In this research work the literature review includes the …

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