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Phytochemical Screening of Coconut Water Extract
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Phytochemical Screening of Coconut Water Extract

Project / Seminar Material
Reference ID: PS-298-TM

DEDICATION

This research work titled "Phytochemical Screening of Coconut Water Extract" is dedicated to God for his enabling grace and to all computer enthusiasts who help to make life a pleasant experience.



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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I owe my indebtedness to my Supervisor (Name of your Supervisor), the Head of Department (Name of your HOD), the Lecturers in the department of Biology, Book Authors and Profound Scholars of existing/related research work for your moral support that facilitated the successful completion of my (Tertiary Institution level). I am grateful to God Almighty and my parent for their financial support in my career. I really appreciate you all for everything, Thank you very much.



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Phytochemical Screening of Coconut Water Extract

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Preliminary Pages

Chapter One

Introduction

  • 1.1 Introduction
  • 1.2 Background …

Chapter Two

Literature Review

  • 2.1 Introduction

Chapter Three

Materials and Methods

  • 3.1 Introduction

Chapter Four

Results and Discussion

  • 4.1 Introduction

Chapter Five

Summary, Conclusion, and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Summary
  • 5.3 Conclusion
  • 5.4 Recommendation

References




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ABSTRACT

Coconut water is isotonic in nature. It contains both macro and micro minerals which play vital roles in body metabolism. The study was carried out to investigate the phytochemical and antibacterial activities of coconut water extract. In achieving this aim, the following specific objectives were laid out to carry out a phytochemical screening activities of coconut water extract, analyze the antimicrobial activities of coconut water extract and provide information that will educate the consumers on the immense health benefits of the coconut water. The preliminary phytochemical analysis showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, phenolics, steroids and tannins in cocos nucifera water, alycosides, phemolics, terpenoids and alkaloids were detected while others were absent. This result indicated that coconut water has useful medicinal values especially with the presence of phemolics and alkaloids. The study adopted a laboratory analysis of the sample. Result of the analysis showed that coconut water extract contain phenol, cardiac glycoside, flavonoid, saponin, tannin and alkaloid among other. The result also showed that methanol extract of the coconut water extract have antimicrobial effect on Aspergilius spp, Fusarium and Mould fungi but had no effect on E.coli on the other hand, n-hexane coco nut water extract was found to have inhibit the growth of E.coli but had no inhibition against Aspergilius spp Fusarium and Mould fungi while water (stem) extract of coco nut water had no inhibitory effect on any of the organism. Based on the findings, it is recommended that coconut water be adopted and use in the production of medicine against the infection that are caused by some fungi organism.





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Phytochemical Screening of Coconut Water Extract

CHAPTER ONE

1.1 Introduction

Natural phytochemicals derived from medicinal plants have gained significant recognition in the potential management of several human clinical conditions, including cancer “Phyto” is the Greek word for plant. There are many “familiar” of phytochemicals and they help the human body in a variety of ways. The coconut fruit is a fibrous drupe consisting of a thin hard skin (exocarp), a thick layer of fibrous mesocarp (husk), the hard endocarp (shell), the white endosperm (kernel) and the large cavity filled with liquid (water) when immature. The water is a clear liquid found in the interior of coconut. In a healthy and undamaged coconut, the water is sterile. Its sodium and potassium content makes it an ideal drink for rehydration.

As a prelude to other parts of this study, this chapter will discuss the background upon which this study was initiated, the statement of problems that led to this study, the Aim and Objectives of the study. Others are Significance of the study, Scope of work, Limitation of the study and Definition of technical terms.

1.2 Background of Study

The coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is tropical plants which belong to the order Arecales and family Arecaceae. It is widely grown in about 90 tropical regions of the world (Peggy, 2007). Every part can be utilized roots, husk, leaves and fruit. The cavity of the endosperm contains watery fluid called coconut water which begin to form around two months after the natural opening of the inflorescence (Janick and Pull, 2008). It is rich in vitamins, amino acids, minerals and sugar (George, 2001). The coconut water is isotonic in nature. It's biologically pure with pleasant sweet taste which is of immense health benefits to human (Adams and Bratt, 2000).

Coconut water contains both macro and micro minerals which play vital roles in body metabolism. Examples of these minerals are Mg, Na, K, P, Fe, Zn and Cu (Jean et al., 2009). The fluid has long been used in different parts of the world. During the second worldwar coconut water was used in place of saline solution during emergency surgeries (Aragao, 2000). It is used in controlling hypertension, intestinal problems and weight reduction. Coconut water is also used for intravenous rehydration and electrolyte replacement in a wide range of situation (Ferraz et al., 2003).

The characteristics of the coconut water changes as the coconut ages. A very young coconut (i.e. about 3-5 months, before the endosperm begins to form), has tasteless water that is somewhat astringent. Water from a mature coconut is slightly salty to the taste, but when the coconut grows well on land, the salty taste disappears. The best time to harvest a coconut for drinking is at age 6-7 months, just as the jelly-like endosperm begins to form. At this stage the water has maximum sweetness and low acidity (Cocoinfo, 2004).

Phytochemicals may protect human from a host of disease. They are non-nutritive plant chemicals that have protective or disease preventive properties, plant produce these chemicals to protect itself but recent research demonstrates that many phytochemicals can protect humans against diseases. There are many phytochemicals in fruits and herbs and each works differently. The coconut, cocos nucifera L, has been described as the “tree of life” or tree of heaven and nature's greatest gift to man. Each part of the coconut tree can be used to produce items of value for the community. Cocos nucifera L is a dominant type of tree belonging to the family Arecaceae (palm). The common name of cocos nucifera is coconut or coconut palm. Coconut is believed to have its origins in the Ido-Malayan region from where its spread throughout to tropics. The coconut palm is monoecious, i.e. with male and female flowers on the same inflorescence, called a spadix, that develops within a woody sheathe or spathe. At flowering, the spathe splits length wise to expose the spadix. Each spadix consists of a man axis 1-1.5m (3-3-5ft) in length with 40-60 branches or spikelets bearing the flowers linder favorable growing conditions first flowering occurs about 4-5 years after planting.

Therefore, in Nigeria where the research was carried out, the activities that was conducted is to know the Phytochemical Screening of Coconut Water Extract.

1.3 Statement of Problems

Investigation reveals that Coconut water is LIKELY SAFE for most adults when consumed as a drink. It might cause fullness or stomach upset in some people. But this is uncommon. In large amounts, coconut water might cause potassium levels in the blood to become too high. This might lead to kidney problems and irregular heartbeat (Webmd, 2021).

1.4 Aims and Objectives of Study

The aim of the study is to investigate the phytochemical and antibacterial activities of coconut water extract. In achieving this aim, the following specific objectives were laid out as follows:

  1. To carry out a phytochemical screening activities of coconut water extract
  2. To analyze the antimicrobial activities of coconut water extract.
  3. To provide information that will educate the consumers on the immense health benefits of the coconut water.

1.5 Significance of the Study

Healthier food choices are associated with a higher life expectancy. Thus, participating and adapting to healthy eating habits by consumers such as balanced diet, reduced fatty intake, moderate alcohol consumption and reduced sugars can help improve their well — being. In Nigeria, according to the Ministry of Health (MOH's) Health Report Card 2011these healthy eating practices can reduce the amount of deaths associated to chronic non- communicable ailments since, consuming healthier foods and food products will lessen the development of risk factors associated with cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes and strokes that may end in death.

Additionally, it is known that coconut water can be used in a variety of ways however consumer knowledge of its countless benefits is uncertain and there are limited studies in relation to the perception and acceptance of functional foods in Nigeria. Thus, there is the need to assess consumer knowledge, perception and acceptance of coconut water as a functional food among consumers in Nigeria.

1.6 Scope of Study

The study focuses on the Phytochemical Screening of Coconut Water Extract. The coconut samples were obtained in their dry conditions and the drupes were randomly selected from four different states in Nigeria.

1.7 Limitations of the study

During the course of this study, many things militated against its completion, some of which are:

  1. Time Constraint: The time frame given to accomplish this project was very short due to school academic calendar and it was carried out under pressure which made the researcher not to implement some necessary features.
  2. Research material: availability of research material is a major setback to the scope of the study.
  3. Frequent power failure: This made the researcher append more money on fuel to ensure sustainable power.

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 Literature Review

2.1 Introduction

This chapter focuses on the review of related literature. A literature review includes the current knowledge as well as theoretical and methodological contributions to a particular topic. It documents the state of the art with respect to the topic you are writing. It surveys the literature in the topic selected. In this research work the literature review includes the …

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Proposal Writing Format under Biology


Phytochemical Screening of Coconut Water Extract is a proposal topic for final year research work, which comprises the major and elective project proposal writing sections for Phytochemical Screening of Coconut Water Extract research work.

Major Sections
  • Motivation for Embarking on the Project

  • Brief Background of Study

  • Statement of Problems

  • Aim of the Study

  • Specific Objectives of the Study

  • Significance of the Study (Who benefits from the project and how?)

Elective Sections
  • Relevant Research Questions

  • Relevant Research Hypotheses


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  • Abstract

CHAPTER ONE

  • Motivation / Statement of Problems
  • Aims & Objective of Study
  • Scope of Study
  • Significance of Study

CHAPTER TWO

  • State two or more citation from your review of related literature.

CHAPTER THREE

  • Know the methodologies, tools and techniques used.

CHAPTER FOUR

  • Justification of your work and things to adhered to before using the system or research work.

CHAPTER FIVE

  • Conclusion and Recommendation

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