1.1 Background Of The Study.
Construction is one of the most dangerous occupations. One in six fatal accidents at work occurs on a construction site around the world. Yet the causes of accident are well known and almost all presentable and as other business issues, occupational safety and health (OSH) can be managed in the enterprise. It is commonly known that accidents have serious implications to the construction industry both in financial and humanitarian terms. Construction accidents may cause many problems, such as demonstration of worker, disruption of site activities, delay of project progress and adversely affecting the overall cost, productivity and reputation of the construction industry (Mohammed, 1990).
In Hong Kong, the cost of accidents accounts 8.5% of the total turnover price (Rordlinson 2003) considering the adverse impacts of accidents, construction safety management is of genuine concern to all stakeholders in the construction industry. Government unions and insurers have spent a greatest of time and effort attempting to evolve legislation, rules and regulations to help reduce the large loss of life and luns and the highs number of “ lost work days” (Goldsmith, 1987).
In USA, the practice of safety in construction is regulated by governmental safety and Health Administration (OSHA), which provides strict rules and regulations to everyone safety and health reduces accident rates unless craftsmen and management take positive actions to integrated these rules into their everybody activities by implementation a safety management program safety management is an road aimed at removing or minimizing the forces which cause losses through injured workers, damaged equipment and facilities.
In Nigeria, the federal ministry of work promise all rules and regulations guiding construction in the country. The different individual commissioners of works in different make up states within the federation also assist in regulation of principles and laws guiding constructional projects in the state.
In most developing countries, including Nigerian safety consideration in construction project delivery is not given a priority, and employment of safety measured during building construction is considered a burden (Mbuya and Lema 2002. the construction industry in Nigerian is one of the fastest growing and largest sectors in the National economy. It is also one of the highest contributing sectors to the national gross domestic product (GDP) next to agriculture. However occupational safety and health in the construction industry in Nigerians is at the very basic level.
It lacks all the three fronts of engineering reduction and enforcement (Three E’s) of safety. Safety concerns have been raised, of late and earnest efforts are being made to promote safety in the Nigerian construction industry. The industry, as such needs to assess the safety situation and accordingly plan and implementing safe construction in Nigeria.
Currently, there is a genuine set of data on safety at construction site in Nigeria. Apparently, there are no systematic and organized studies conducted specifically on the safety aspects of the construction industry in Nigeria.
This research study was aimed into assess the existing safety management practices and perception in the Nigerian construction industry. The assessment was useful in providing information in terms of current safety practices administered in Nigeria. Meanwhile the perceptions was useful in finding out what are the main reasons and whether the regulator and construction companies have different perceptions in identifying problems related to safety management.
Historical Background Of Safety Management In Building Constriction Site.
Over the past three decades, the Nigeria construction industry has experience a very high level of industrial accidents, more than any other industries. The Nigerian institute of safety professionals (NISP) was inaugurated in August 1980 as Nigeria society of safety professionals (NSSP) during the annual conference of the National Industrial safety council of the Nigeria (NISCN) as a professional technical arm of the NISCN, NISCN- is a tripartite body comprising the governments of the federation (represented by Director of practices, Federal Ministry of labour of productivity), Employers represented by the Nigeria employers consultative.
The institutes will assist in the control loss of lives and properties and damage to the environment ensuring from mishaps.
Therefore, we need to develop, promote, inculcate and encourage safety knowledge and technical know-how, and enforce standards and ethics in the practice of safety in Nigeria among members both individual and corporate harnessing and directing the energies of skilled manpower to protect our resources as for the benefit of our country, Nigeria.
The institute’s major policy thrust is to develop and nurture, dynamic, effective and efficient safety services and practice in Nigeria through training, examination, certificate, recognition, supervision and discipline of safety personnel and consultants. It is also the institutes mission to constantly research and review current safety standard, principles, organization and methods in collaboration with similar international in Nigeria.
At the same tine, the increasing professionalism in the management of projects has placed more and more emphasis on safety, health and welfare issue. The government has also raised the awareness through a series of measures. Although the over all accident rate dropped down the level of fatalities was still unacceptable Lingard and Johnson (1994) upwards that the annual accident rate per 1000 workers was twice its Us counterpart, more than 20 times that of Japan and nearly 30 times that of Singapore.
In recent years, the Nigerian Government has been involved in combating the poor safety programme in Building construction sister. Government has introduced a series safety programme, which consist of both incentive we and mandatory schemes in order to nourish a better safety culture in the institution of safety is to advance the interest of safety management in Building construction site.
Effective safety management will assist Gatson Builders Nigeria Limited to anymore on its management policies, methods of constriction to reduce material wastage and resources and then enhance efficiency in building constriction works. Training programme will be organized by the management of Gatson Builders, to elevate the knowledge of workers and also create a forum for skill acquisition.
Gatson Builder is an autonomous construction company established and the corporate affairs commission (CAC) to operate within the country as an indigenous constriction company. The managing director is a girl Engineer by profession and some years of experience from so many expatriates.
The issue about safety management started during the pre-design stage of the project through proper site instating soil investigating, soil investigation and analysis. Also in the design stage, the Architect should design a build able, serviceable and maintainable structure to reduce alterations during constriction. The bill of quantity (BOQ) and pricing and estimation analyses for the project will be done by a lost economic or experts to ensure that fund allocated for the project will be enough up to the completion stage to avoid abandonment. Professional should be engage in the constriction stage and quake to be discourage to avoid failure or collapse of the project.
Government Regulations And Legislation.
Although any form of legislation all first seems completed, impact, the law is straight forward. It was formulated by Government to help reduce to provide safe working condition. Health and safety legislation basically requires employers to put in place control measures to ensure that the five basic criteria are met.
These criteria are known as the employers duties requiring employers to;
- Ensure that work equipment that has been provided is safe and is maintained in a safe condition.
- Ensure that people are provided with adequate information, instruction and training in the tasks that they are being asked to perform.
- Ensure there is good access to and from the workplace and in particular, ensure that recap routes are clear from debris and that good house keeping standards are maintained.
- Ensure that people are provided with adequate information, instruction and training in the tasks that they are being asked to perform.
- Ensure that the working environment is kept safe and healthy.
A regulatory body was formed in Nigeria to look after the issue of management in all the construction company operating in the country and to reduce the trend of building of building structural collapse. The Nigerian society of safety professionals (NSSP) through its wring and associates Nigeria institute of safety professionals (NISP) was formulated to enhance professionalism and the quality of work declared at every instance.
Legislation is a government policy put imp lace to check mate the activities, movement, working conditions within the country and its environs. With over 5 million people working in the construction intensity in the Nigeria and with over 3000 people having been killed whistle at work in the industry over the last 25 years, there are always improvements which can be made with regards to health and safety and despite the fact that many improvements have been introduced during that period and continue to be made, there are so many hazards and risks to consider when working on a construction project that health and safety needs are paramount.
There are cases of binding collapse within the country due to professional negligence and inadequate safety management. It is because of thee on going menace that lead to the establishment of legislation and regulatory body’s to check for safety of both material and mean during construction proceedings. There are numerous pieces of health and safety legislation which construction site must adhere to and specific legislation relating to the industry itself-some of them are the construction (health safety and welfare) REGULATIONS 1996 (CHSW) and the construction (design and management) regulations 1994 (CDM).
Regulations are rules, policy, formulations and laws set aside by government to monitor the activities of workers in the construction site attitude and sections of employers towards their employers during construction process. In most cases, there sure certain types of accidents that need to be reported to the Health and safety Executive (HSE) or the local planning authority. These statutory reportable case are found in a piece of health and safety law known as the Reporting of injury disease and dangerous occurrences Regulations (RIDDOR).
The law requires employers t0 report certain accidents by telephone or via the internet with in 24 hours of the accident occurring. Also, the accident should be reported to the authority on a special form and submitted within 7 days of the accident.
The primary price of legislation which relates to the control of infections diseases at work is the control of substance hazardous to health regulations 2002 (COSHH) and covers any micro- organism which could cause infection, allergy, toxicity or any other danger to human health.
There are many biological agents which make up a list drawn up within the regulations and they are each classified into four (4) hazardous groups with HG4 being the most Hazardous. On the basis of each of the four grouping there are then appropriate regulations and guide lines which must be adhered to in terms of their control and containment. In addition to COSHH, there is also other health and safety legislation allergy, toxicity or any other danger to human health.
There are many biological agents which make up a list drawn up within the regulations and they are each classified into four (4) hazardous groups with HG4 being the most Hazardous. On the basis of each of the four grouping there are then appropriate regulations and guide lines which must be adhered to in terms of their control and containment. In addition to COSHH, there is also other health and safety legislation
In place when or coming into contact with potential harmful micro- organisms or biological agents in areas such as working with genetically modified organisms, legislation with regards to cooling towers and evaporate condensers, anthrax prevention and the infections micro organisms.
Some other bodies are also involved in administering and enforcing health and safety matters regarding construction works.
There are agood number of professionals and their regulatiry bodies in the building constrction industry. These regularity bodies make sure that professional institution work with specification provided to upheld professionalism and quality to work produced at the end of each project land over. Some of these regulatory bodies and their institutions are;
ARCON-Architect Regulation Council of Nigeria which regulates the works and activities of architecture that is Nigerian institute of Architectures, CORN- Council of Registered Builders of Nigerian Regulates the Nigerian institute of building (NIOB), COREN- council for the regulation of Engineering in Nigerian regulates the Nigerian society of Engineers (NSE), QSRON as Quantity surveyors registration of Nigeria regulates the Nigerians institute of quantity surveyors and all their activities, CRESV as council of Regulation of Estate surveyors and valuers, TOPREC as town planner regulation council regulates the works of the professional bodies and its regulations.
All these regulatory bodies were authorized and supported by government before their formations and establishments.
Under the health and safety (first Aid) regulation 1981, revised in October 2009, all employers have a duty to provide adequate first aid arrangements for employees and this includes, small business ( less than five employees) and the self employed like private building contractors
Working At Height Regulations.
The working at height legislation (2005) contains the central principles, which will be a useful introduction to new comers. Although the regulations were put into place in 2005, the guidelines are largely common sense. For instance, work must be planned and supervised appropriately. Equipment must be checked before use and Seaford ladders must be used with safety precautions in place. ( like guard rails). Anyone working at height or employing people to work at height should be aware of the basic legislation.its designed to avoid fatalities on the job.
The international labour organization adopted the safety and health in construction convention (No 1 167) and its associated recommendation (No 175) 1988. as a complement to these standards, the code of practice on safety and healthy in construction was approved in 1992. in line with the newest trends in occupational safety and healthy (OSH) management, the ILO developed the guidelines on occupational health and safety management applicable to all sectors and particularly useful in the construction industry as they highlight issues relating to subcontracting.
Essential areas of responsibility set out by the regulations are as follows;
As LEADER OR EMPLOYERS. YOU ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR PLANNING supervising and monitoring the work at height. This includes duties such as checking the equipment, and stopping work in poor weather. The employers must also ensure that the person doing the work is competent to do, or is being trained by a competent supervisor.
2. Fall Presentation:
The leader or employers is responsible for taking measures to prevent falls. This includes providing safety equipment to minimize the distance and consequences of a fall.
3. Choosing Equipment:
Where it isn’t practical for work to be carried out from a place or work equipment must be selected to ensure the employee is not put at risk. The choice of equipment will depend on distance negotiated, duration and frequency of thee work, and it should also be chosen with emergency evacuation or rescue in mind. To fulfill their duties employers should be able to show that they have considered all of the potential risks and made an informed decision. The regulations specifies certain equipment or systems for different working situations – check them for more information about your particular area of work.
4. Cordoning The Danger Areas:
The employer is responsible for identifying danger areas, such as the ground below and around a scaffold, where people may be harmed by filling objects. The areas should be properly equipped and also clearly marked for employees and the public.
5. Regular Inspection:
Employers are responsible for meeting the complex inspection requirements laid out in the working at Height regulations. Equipment and sites must be regularly inspected and checked before use.
6. Employee Reporting:
An employee or trip member has the responsibilities of properly using equipment and for reporting any situation or equipment that he find to be risky and faulty in other avert accidents and other related work injuries.
Significance Of Safety Management In Building Construction Site.
- Safety management in Building construction site is of enormous importance to the entire construction and it begins from the pre design, design stage, construction stage up to the completion of the project to assist both the client and the main contractor.
- it provides an information to the workers and the construction and on how to be an guide against any practice that may cause accident or injury during the construction process.
- the safety protective wears or attire like the land at helps to protect and prevent lead injury from falling objects or from letting the head of the employees or workers.
- the application of safety management during construction will ensure appropriate construction methodology is adopted to increase efficiency of the project.
- the health, life of workers and constructional materials are protected throughout the construction projects.
- it helps to control infections and pollution on the construction site by ensuring that workers put on their safety glasses or goggles to safe guard and protect the eyes against saw dust and debris from affecting his sight.
- it provides instructions and education to workers in different operatives to enhance and improve in their methods of executing tasks.
- it helps to reduce waste of building construction materials and to maximize profit by th main constructor.
- it assist the main contractor and its crews to finish the project within an agreed stipulated time agreed up in the contract document.
- it helps to reduce accidents and injuries during and after the construction periods when all the safety protocols are observed and obeyed in accordance to statute.
- It ensures that the right type of material is used and also an adequate estimation of cost is properly analyzed to assist in the project delivery.
1.2 Statement Of The Problem
There is deficiency in the application of safety management in most of the building construction site in Nigeria. Due to this professional negligence and ignorance, along most construction companies own, brought about the crucial analysis of safety management in our indigenous construction firms to correct the problem of failure, to apply safety precaution and design stage.
Construction industry in Nigeria has a lot of risk and loss of workers life over the years, so many accidents and injury prone cases are as well recorded evry years. To prevent this trend from reoccurring, safety management system will have to be adopted by all employers, construction experts, supervisor, engineers and all working crews to control this rising incidence from always repeating itself. Prevention they say is better than cure, it will be of interest for government to continue to remind the issue of safety to all construction company to adopt this in their construction programme. For individual (private) constructions firms and government owned and other foreign expatriated within the industry to succeed in this fight for poor implementation of safety, policy, principles, programme, rules, regulations and legislation will have to be cherished and welcome as a source of remedy to the problem in question.
To reduce death, injury and stress of workers during construction process, adequate training should be given to the workers for proper orientation of work. For instance, building construction sites are made up of so much plant and machinery and operators of this type of equipment should be fully trained and that also is applicable for those workers or drivers who operates vehicles like tippers, tankers ( diesel or fuel) cars both on and off with included are those mechanical equipment like mechanical diggers, cranes, fork lift, truck, caterpillars and so on should all be exposed to practical knowledge for more acquisition of skills.
Despite all efforts put in-place, why does building construction projects collapse? This question is paramount because each time a structure or building fails or collapse, so many lives are lost at a result of the problem. There are some number factors causing this problem and they are professional negligence, poor supervision of construction projects, poor quality material and Workmanship, selfishness from most contractors to maximize profit and inadequate safety management procedures are all involved. Questionnaire, interviews and participants observations are designed to examine the problem of safety management in building construction industry.
1.3 Objectives Of The Study
This study is to examine critical the condition of safety management in Building construction site in Aba. With the aim of discovering all the obstacles or hindrance to effective safety management in the building construction site.
Safety management is the process of controlling supervisory, monitoring, inspecting and planning of all the activities to be carried out in a onstruction site for effcctive project delivery and execution.
There is a trend for safety culture to be expresses in terms of activities or behaviour. Glendon et al. (2006, P.367) highlight that when defining safety culture the promise of some researchers is to focus on attitudes, where others emphasized safety culture being expressed through their behaviour and work activists, where others emphasized safety culture being expressed through their behaviour and work activities. In other words, the safety culture of any organization or industry acts as a guide as to how employee. In other words, the safety culture of an organization or industry acts as a guide as to how employees will behave in the workplace or site. Advisory committee on the safety of nuclear installation describes safety culture as: organization with a positive safety culture are characterized by communications founded on mutual trust by shared perceptions of their importance safety and by confidence in the efficiency preventive measures”
The safety culture of an is the product of individual and group values, attitudes, perceptions, companies and patterns of behaviour that determine the commitment to and the style and proficiency of , an organizations health and safety management”.
It is important to identify the perception of the organization’s safety culture as it represent a critical factor influencing multiple aspects of human performance and organizational safety. The research work was also aimed at assessing the attitudes and reactions of safety management by zerock construction Nigeria Limited, Aba towards implementation of safety as a tool for effective and good project management. When safety culture is seen as a habit that should be adopted by Zerock construction Nigeria limited , it will help to improve on the quality of building construction projects in Nigeria.
This study is equally aimed at suggesting adequate measures and solutions to the problems of poor quality safety solutions to the problems of poor quality safety management in Nigeria Building construction industry.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions were formulated and tested in this research.
- Does funding of Zerock construction by the state government affect its activities professionally.
- Does differences in culture language and custom affect the quality of safety management in Building construction site of Zerock construction Nigeria limited in Aba.
- How can inadequate expatriates and modern equipment affect the quality of safety management in instruction of building projects of Zerock construction \\Nigeria Limited Aba?
- Does inexperience and inadequate skill acquisition affect the quality of safety management Building construction projects of Zerock construction Nigeria limited in Aba.
- Does selfishness and over profit maximization during construction lead to the ignorance of safety management application in Building construction process by Zerock construction Nigeria limited in Aba.
1.5 Research Hypothesis
This study will definitely answer and give possible suggestions on how to achieve the proposed intentions of this research.
These questions will appear in some hypothetical formulations which will be proven later in the course of this research.
- H1 rock construction Nigeria limited affect its activities government provision of funds professionally.
HO government provision of fund does not affect the activities of Zerock construction Nigeria limited professionally.
- H2 Difference in culture, language and custom affect the quality of safety management in Building instruction site of Zerock construction |Nigeria Limited in Aba?.
HO Differences in culture language and custom does not affect the quality of safety site of Zerock construction |Nigeria Limited in Aba.
- H3 can inadequate expatriates and money equipment affect the quality of building construction project of Zerock construction Nigeria limited in Aba.
H3 Inadequate expatriates and modern equipment does not affect the quality of building construction project of Zerock construction Nigeria Limited in Aba.
- H4 inexperience and inadequate skill acquisition affect quality of building construction projects of Zerock construction \\Nigeria limited in Aba.
HO Inexperience and inadequate skill acquisition does not affect the quality of building construction projects of Zerock construction Nigeria Limited in Aba.
- H5 Selfishness and over profit maximization during construction lead to the ignorance of safety management application in Building construction processes by Zerock construction Nigeria limited in Aba.
HO selfishness and profit maximization during construction does not lead to the ignorance of safety management application in building construction process by Zerock construction Nigeria limited in Aba.
1.6 Definition Of Terms.
This is a state of being safe and protected against.
this is a professional in which is responsible for hazardous translating and developing all designs by other consultants .
this is define as the total way of peoples life in terms of attitude benefits, perceptions, values and morality.
It is the discipline of planning co-coordinating, organizing, controlling, leading, forecasting, securing and managing resources to being about the successful completion of specific project goals and objectives.
this is a professional in the field of architecture who design building plan and supervision.
according to Wikipedia’s encyclopedia construction is designed as a process of assembling of infrastructure and consist of building up of several activities into final project.
it is a temporary endeavor having a defined beginning and end which is an undertaken to meet unique goals and objectives.
it is the process off aiding structure to real property.
It is defined as a structure erected where it is to stand with the main functions of shelter and habitation for man.
Project Manager (PM):
is the person accountable for accomplishing the stated project objectives.
Project Management( PM):
This is field of study or discipline of planning organizing securing and managing resources for a successful completion of project with in the stipulated time to meet its desired goals and objectives.
Project Proposals (PP):
They are documents designed to present a plan to action.
The general standards or grade of something it also means the highest of finest standard.
Things that contribute to or his an influence on the outcome of something.
Management of the site structural engineer: this is a professional in the field of civil engineering who speechlessness on structural and its detailing.
Quantity Surveyors (QS):
This is a cost experts who prepares the bills of quality and estimates.
This is the location or place where the building structure and all its construction takes place programme. Zerock construction activities on site.
These are people working in the building construction industry which is made up of male and female who are employed by Zerock construction Nigeria Limited.
Project owners should fund it adequately.
This is a precautionary measure which Zerock construction employed in the industry to evermore quality if contraction projects.
it has to do with the behaviour and restriction of employers being Zerock construction Nigeria Limited and its employees which the construction workers.
this has to do with the ways and pattern in zerock construction organizer, plan, control and managed all site and construction administration.
As applied to civil engineering is also part of the building construction and the translation of the project into rest habitable place.
the service of professional Architecture is needed at Zerock construction Nigeria limited ensure that building drawings are produced properly and also proper consultation.
is a temporary effort to create a unique product or several which the building construction that has to be done by Zerok construction without unnecessary delays and on time too.
proper funding will assist Zerock construction to execute their work effectively.
Building Construction (BC):
it is the execution of Building contracts building contracts by Zerock construction Nigeria limited and implementation of contract obligation to avoid friction.
Project Manager (PM):
the Pm should supervise any inspect the building construction site regularly as to assist Zerock construction furnish their work on time.
Zerock construction Nigeria limited should delegate Pm site engineers and supervisors to ensure effective management of the site.
This document should be prepared earlier by Zerock construction Nigeria limited to rapid response of work and completion.
The nature of building projects handled by Zerock construction Nigeria limited will determine its experience and profile in the construction industry.
it is important that safety manager policy and procedures should be adopted zerock constructions Nigeria, Limited to construction works.
Construction Management (CM):
THERE has to be proper planning of how the building construction should be managed by Zerock construction Nigeria limited.
should ascertain that the correct size and type of reinforcement bar is used for each project to discourage collapse.
He ensures that all designs details are fully translated and interpreted during construction process (period) .
Quantity Surveyor (QS):
As a cost analyst, the QS must ensure that the bill of quantities (BOQ) is adequately prepared for good quality project by Zerock construction Nigeria limited.
it is the central point of all construction activities.
Zerock construction Nigeria limited should provide good put here on how activities on will take effect.
all the working crew on site should be provided with good safety management policy by Zrock construction Nigeria limited to encourage them.
1.7 Assumptions Of The Study.
The assumption of the study assists to provide the basic foundation and background for hypothesis. Nwody (2006).
In this study, the researcher raised number of assumptions and that there are factors that affect the quality of safety management in building construction site in Nigeria.
Other assumptions include;
- That the NSSP and NISP are no efficient in their activities.
- Government negligence towards safety management affects the quality of building construction projects in Nigeria.
- That inadequate experience and failure to initiate safety programme and management in the construction, industry has caused serious havoc in the quality off projects in Nigeria.
1.8 Limitations Of The Study
This research work would have been appropriate if the coverage of the study included all the construction industries in Nigeria n but because of the time limit and duration within which the study is supposed to be completed, this work has been limited top cover only the procedure, policy and quality of constructional programs of zerock construction Nigeria limited in Aba and its application of safety management within the industry. Also, as a result of some constraints, it is impossible to cover all the states in Nigeria, thus the research shall be confirmed to zerock construction Nigeria limited in Aba.
Some staff and workers who were military approached to answer questions part to them, declined to comments.
Safety can be limited in relation to some guarantee or a standard of insurance to the quality and unharmful function of an object or organization. It is used in order to ensure that the object or organization will do only what it is meant to do. It is important to realize that safety is relative.
Eliminating all risk if even possible would be extremely difficult and very expensive. A safe situation is one where risk of injury, accident or situation is one where risk of injury, accidents property damage are low and manageable.